S-Space College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (농업생명과학대학) Dept. of Biosystems and Biomaterials Science and Engineering (바이오시스템·소재학부) Theses (Ph.D. / Sc.D._바이오시스템·소재학부)
Farm Mechanization of Small Farms in Ethiopia: A Case of Cereal Crops in Hetosa District
- Amana Wako
- Kyeong Uk Kim(professor)
- 농업생명과학대학 바이오시스템·소재학부
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 대학원
- Biosystems Engineering thesis
- 학위논문 (박사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 바이오시스템·소재학부 바이오시스템공학전공, 2016. 8. Kyeong Uk Kim(professor).
- Farm machinery utilization for small farm holders in Ethiopia is not prominent. Reliance on draught animal technology and low productivity had been observed. It has been a question to most of the people why our agriculture relies on animal power, and people agree that this has to be changed. But how to change should come about. Based on these problems the study aimed to investigate the existing conditions of small-holders farm mechanization and to evaluate the effect of using agricultural machinery on crop production particularly on main cereal crops. In order to achieve the objective of this study, different methods were used. Data were collected from randomly selected 90 farmers using stratified random sampling techniques. In order to see the effect of farm machinery on crop production, linear regression was used. In addition, three mechanization models i.e. Model 1: traditional farming
Model 2: Semi- mechanized farming
and Model 3: Mechanized farmings were developed. They were compared in terms of machine-hours, man-hours, draught animal-hours, labor required, land and labor productivity. Furthermore, these models were compared by the mechanization input and output energy consumptions. In addition, mechanization status of the study area and existing farm machineries time and use dependent costs and economic feasibility of owing farm machinery were determined.
The results indicated that using farm machineries and associated technologies has a positive and significant effect on cereal crops productions. Among three models, traditional wheat farming was more labor intensive by 86.7% and 88% than the semi-mechanized and mechanized farmings respectively, and the number of days required for the complete farm operations was greater for the traditional by 72.2% and 94.4% than those required for the mechanized and semi-mechanized farming respectively. It was found that mechanized farming was labor and time saved technology more than the traditional and semi-mechanized farming. Mechanized and semi-mechanized farming played a significant role by reducing the operations hours of cereal crops which have timeliness effect on production. It was found that the mechanized and semi-mechanized farming were more land and labor productive than the traditional farming. Labor productivity was increased by 94.2%, 95.6% and 61.42% for wheat, barley and maize farm operation respectively when the traditional farming was mechanized. Besides, productivity by the mechanized and semi-mechanized productions was more than those by the traditional production. Hence, traditional farming was not economical.
However, from the energy prospective, total input energy for the semi-mechanized farm for wheat was more by 95.47% and 77.14% than those by the traditional and mechanized farmings respectively. Energy efficiency and productivity by the mechanized and traditional farmings were more than those by semi-mechanized production. Finally, low mechanization level, improper machinery handling, over-utilization, high repair and maintenance, and fuel and oil costs were identified. However, this study found impressive results which could invoke and inspire farmers in the study area to own tractors so as to get return in a short period. The last but not the least, choice of farm machinery for the framers in the study area is crucial. Hence, it is recommended that the government to design proper mechanization policies which could change current traditional farming systems of small farm holders to power assisted ones.
Key words: farm mechanization, mechanization modeling, farm machinery, energy, cereal crops