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Black Hole Masses, Scaling Relations, and The Co-Evolution of Black Holes and Galaxies
블랙홀 질량, 척도 관계, 블랙홀과 은하의 공동 진화

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dc.contributor.advisor우종학-
dc.contributor.author박대성-
dc.date.accessioned2017-07-14T00:54:25Z-
dc.date.available2017-07-14T00:54:25Z-
dc.date.issued2013-08-
dc.identifier.other000000013583-
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10371/121475-
dc.description학위논문 (박사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 물리·천문학부 천문학 전공, 2013. 8. 우종학.-
dc.description.abstract초거대 블랙홀의 성장과 그 모은하 간의 공동 진화를 이해하고자
다음과 같은 일련의 연구들을 수행하였다.
먼저 이 연구에서 핵심적인 물리량인 블랙홀 질량을 정확히 측정하기 위해,
수소 방출선의 한 시점 분광 관측을 통해 측정되는 비리얼 블랙홀 질량의 불확실성에 대해 체계적으로 연구하고
이러한 질량 측정법에 중요한 비리얼 계수를 추정하여 보다 향상된 질량 측정법을 제시하였다.
높은 적색편이에 존재하는 활동성 은하의 블랙홀 질량 측정에 유용한 탄소 방출선 기반 질량 추정법의 정확도를 향상시켰다.
이러한 경험과 기술을 바탕으로 먼 우주에 존재하는
블랙홀의 질량과 그 모은하의 팽대부 밝기를 측정하여 이들의 물리적 상관 관계에 대한 시간 진화를 연구하였다.


가까운 우주에 존재하는 9개의 활동성 은하에 대해 빛 반향 분포 측정법을 통해 얻어진 균질하고 고품질의 분광 자료에
다성분 분광 분해 기법을 적용하여,
은하의 밝기 변화에서 기인하는 임의적 오차(12\%)와 방출선의 선폭 차이에서 기인하는 체계적 오차(60\%)를 측정하고
이를 보정하는 새로운 질량 측정기법을 개발하였다.
또한 이 연구에 기반한 질량 측정치가 이론적인 비리얼 정리와 크기-밝기 관계에서 예측되는 값과 잘 부합함을 보였다.


최근 연구 문헌에서 정립된 활동성/비활동성 은하 자료에 다양한 선형회귀분석법을 적용하여 블랙홀질량-별속도분산 상관 관계식과
비리얼 계수를 유도하였다.
이러한 결과로부터 샘플 선택에서 기인하는 차이와 선형회귀분석의 독립변수 선택에서 기인하는 차이로 인해
현재 비리얼 계수 결정법에는 두배 가량의 체계적 오차가 존재함을 보였다.
또한 선형회귀분석법 중 FITEXY와 베이지안 방법론이 블랙홀 척도관계 연구에 가장 적합함을 보였다.


빛 반향 분포 측정법이 적용된 활동성 은하의 최신 샘플과 자료를 바탕으로 다성분 분광 분해 기법을 적용해
탄소 방출선 기반 블랙홀 질량 측정법의 정확도를 향상시켰다.
이러한 새 측정법이 기존의 측정법에 비해 얼마나 차이를 주는지 슬로안 분광전천탐사 자료에서 얻어진
퀘이사 목록에 적용하여 연구하였다.


지금으로부터 대략 40억년 전과 60억년 전에 존재하는 52개의 활동성 은하 샘플에 대해
Keck 지상 망원경과 허블 우주 망원경을 통해 관측하여 얻어진 고품질의 분광 자료와 고분해능의 측광 자료에
정교한 스펙트럼 분석 기법과 이미지 분석 기법을 적용하여 정확한 블랙홀 질량과 은하 팽대부 밝기 측정치를 얻었다.
이 결과에 기반해 먼 우주에 존재하는 블랙홀이 현재 우주의 블랙홀에 비해 상대적으로 작은 은하의 중심에
위치하고 있다는 관측적 증거를 제시하였다.
샘플 선택 효과를 보정하도록 설계된 몬테 칼로 시뮬레이션 기법을 적용해 블랙홀과 은하의 공동 진화 양상을
통계적으로 유도하여 블랙홀의 성장이 은하 진화에 선행한다는 것을 시사하였다.
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dc.description.abstractTo better understand the cosmic growth of supermassive black hole (BH) population and the co-evolution with their host galaxies,
we first perform three studies for improving determination of AGN BH masses,
i.e.,
1) investigating the uncertainties of \Hb\ single-epoch (SE) virial BH mass estimates,
2) constraining the virial factor of the BH mass estimators, and
3) improving the calibration of the \CIV\ SE virial BH mass estimators for high-redshift AGNs.
Then we present a study for direct observational constraints on the redshift evolution of the black hole mass $-$ bulge luminosity relation.

We investigate the calibration and uncertainties of the black hole mass
estimates based on the single-epoch method, using homogeneous and
high-quality 428 multi-epoch spectra obtained by the Lick
AGN Monitoring Project 2008 for 9 local Seyfert~1 galaxies with
black hole masses $<10^{8}~{\rm M}_{\odot}$. By decomposing the
spectra into their AGN and stellar components, we study the
variability of the single-epoch H$\beta$ line width (full width at
half-maximum intensity, \FWHM
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dc.description.abstractor dispersion, \sigmaline) and of the
AGN continuum luminosity at 5100~\AA~($L_{\rm 5100}$). From the
distribution of the ``virial products'' ($\propto$~\FWHM$^2$ $L_{\rm
5100}^{0.5}$ or \sigmaline$^2$ $L_{\rm 5100}^{0.5}$) measured from SE
spectra, we estimate the uncertainty due to the combined variability
as $\sim0.05$ dex (12\%). This is subdominant with respect to the
total uncertainty in SE mass estimates, which is dominated by
uncertainties in the size-luminosity relation and virial coefficient,
and is estimated to be $\sim 0.46$ dex (factor of $\sim3$). By
comparing the \Hb~line profile of the SE, mean, and root-mean-square
(rms) spectra, we find that the \Hb\ line is broader in the mean (and
SE) spectra than in the rms spectra by $\sim0.1$ dex (25\%) for our
sample with \FWHM\ $<3000$ \kms. This result is at variance with
larger mass black holes where the difference is typically found to be
much less than $0.1$ dex. To correct for this systematic difference
of the \Hb\ line profile, we introduce a line-width dependent virial
factor, resulting in a recalibration of SE black hole mass estimators
for low-mass AGNs.

Determining the virial factor of the broad-line region gas is crucial for calibrating AGN black hole mass
estimators, since the measured line-of-sight velocity needs to be converted into the intrinsic virial velocity.
The average virial factor has been empirically calibrated based on the \msigma~relation of quiescent galaxies,
but the claimed values differ by a factor of two in recent studies. We investigate the origin of the difference
by measuring the \msigma~relation using an updated galaxy sample from the literature, and explore the
dependence of the virial factor on various fitting methods. We find
that the discrepancy is primarily caused by the sample selection,
while the difference stemming from the various regression methods is marginal.
However, we generally prefer the \texttt{FITEXY} and \texttt{Bayesian}
estimators based on Monte Carlo simulations for the \msigma~relation.
In addition, the choice of independent variable in the regression
leads to $\sim 0.2$ dex variation in the virial factor inferred from the calibration process.
Based on the determined virial factor, we present the updated \msigma~relation of local active galaxies.

We present the single-epoch black hole mass estimators based on the \CIV~$\lambda$1549 broad
emission line, using the updated sample of the reverberation-mapped AGNs and high-quality
UV spectra. By performing multi-component spectral fitting analysis,
we measure the \CIV\ line widths (FWHM$_{\rm CIV}$ and line dispersion, $\sigma_{\rm CIV}$)
and the continuum luminosity at 1350 \AA~($L_{1350}$) to calibrate the \CIV-based mass estimators.
By comparing with the \Hb\ reverberation-based masses, we provide new mass estimators
with the best-fit relationships, i.e., $M_{\rm BH} \propto L_{1350}^{0.50\pm0.07} \sigma_{\rm CIV}^{2}$ and
$M_{\rm BH} \propto L_{1350}^{0.52\pm0.09}{\rm FWHM}_{\rm CIV}^{0.56\pm0.48}$.
The new \CIV-based mass estimators show significant mass-dependent systematic difference
compared to the estimators commonly used in the literature.
Using the published Sloan Digital Sky Survey QSO catalog, we show that
the black hole mass of high-redshift QSOs decreases on average by $\sim 0.25$ dex if our recipe is adopted.

We investigate the cosmic evolution of the black hole mass -- bulge luminosity relation with
a sample of 52 moderate luminosity galaxies at $z \sim 0.36$ and $z \sim 0.57$, corresponding look-back times of 4 and 6 Gyrs.
By employing multicomponent spectral and structural decomposition methods to the high-quality Keck spectra and high-resolution \HST\ images,
black hole masses (\mbh) are estimated using the \Hb\ broad emission line with the 5100\AA\ nuclear luminosity, and
bulge luminosities (\Lbul) are derived from the surface photometry.
Taking into account selection effects, we obtain the evolution trend of the form $M_{\rm BH} / L_{\rm bul} \propto (1+z)^{1.9 \pm 0.7}$,
which is consistent with previous studies based on the bulge luminosity, as well as on the bulge mass and stellar velocity dispersion.
This result indicates that black holes in the non-local universe live in smaller bulges than today, thus implying that
black holes grow first and then the host galaxies follow up in the context of the co-evolution of black holes and galaxies.
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dc.description.tableofcontentsContents

Abstract i

List of Figures viii

List of Tables x

1 Introduction 1

2 The Lick AGN Monitoring Project: Recalibrating Single-Epoch Virial Black Hole Mass Estimates 13

2.1 Introduction .................................. 13


2.2 ObservationsandDataReduction....................... 16


2.3 Measurements................................. 17


2.3.1 Multi-ComponentFitting....................... 17


2.3.2 Single-EpochSpectra......................... 21


2.3.3 MeanandRMSSpectra ....................... 24


2.4 AnalysisandResults ............................. 32


2.4.1 Testing the Assumptions of SE BH Mass Estimators . . . . . . . . 32

2.4.2 UncertaintiesDuetoVariability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

2.4.3 Systematic Difference between SE and Reverberation Masses . . . 40

2.5 DiscussionandConclusions ......................... 50


2.5.1 RandomUncertainty ......................... 50


2.5.2 Difference in Line Profile between SE and RMS spectra . . . . . . 51

2.5.3 Implications for the Evolution of BH Host-Galaxy Scaling Relations 54


3 Recalibration of the virial factor and MBH - •• relation for local active galaxies 59

3.1 Introduction .................................. 59


3.2 Linearregressiontechniques ......................... 62


3.2.1 BCESestimator............................ 64


3.2.2 FITEXYestimator .......................... 64


3.2.3 MaximumLikelihoodestimator ................... 65


3.2.4 Bayesianestimator(linmix_err) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

3.3 The MBH - •• relations ............................ 67


3.3.1 Re-measuring the relation with four methods . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

3.3.2 The effect of the adopted measurement uncertainty of •• ...... 70

3.3.3 MonteCarlosimulations ....................... 74


3.3.4 Thesampledifference ........................ 76


3.4 Thevirialfactor ................................ 78


3.5 Inversefit ................................... 82


3.6 DiscussionandConclusion .......................... 86


4 Calibrating C IV-based virial black hole mass estimators
97

4.1 Introduction .................................. 97


4.2 SampleandData ............................... 100


4.3 SpectralMeasurements ............................ 101


4.3.1 Continuum Luminosities and Line Widths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

4.3.2 Comparison to Previous Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

4.4 Updating the Calibration of the C IV SE MBH estimator ........... 108


4.4.1 NewCalibrations ........................... 108


4.4.2 ComparisontoPreviousRecipes ................... 111


4.4.3 Difference in SMBH Population using the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog113

4.5 DiscussionandConclusions ......................... 115


5 Investigating the cosmic evolution of the black hole mass – bulge luminosity scaling relation 127

5.1 Introduction .................................. 127


5.2 SampleandData ............................... 128


5.2.1 SampleSelection ........................... 128


5.2.2 ObservationsandDataReduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129


5.3 Measurements................................. 130


5.3.1 BlackHoleMass ........................... 130


5.3.2 BulgeLuminosity .......................... 136


5.4 Results..................................... 145


5.4.1 MBH - Lbul relation .......................... 145


5.4.2 Treating Lbul of Upper Limits with Informative Priors . . . . . . . . 147

5.4.3 LocalComparisonSample ...................... 148


5.4.4 SampleDependency ......................... 150


5.4.5 RedshiftEvolutionoftheRelation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

5.5 Discussion and Conclusions

6 Conclusion and Summary

초록

List of Publications
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dc.formatapplication/pdf-
dc.format.extent7757441 bytes-
dc.format.mediumapplication/pdf-
dc.language.isoen-
dc.publisher서울대학교 대학원-
dc.subjectblack hole physics-
dc.subjectgalaxies: active-
dc.subjectgalaxies: nuclei-
dc.subjectmethods: statistical-
dc.subject.ddc523-
dc.titleBlack Hole Masses, Scaling Relations, and The Co-Evolution of Black Holes and Galaxies-
dc.title.alternative블랙홀 질량, 척도 관계, 블랙홀과 은하의 공동 진화-
dc.typeThesis-
dc.contributor.AlternativeAuthorDaeseong Park-
dc.description.degreeDoctor-
dc.citation.pages본문시작(초록부터) i, 본문 마지막 179-
dc.contributor.affiliation자연과학대학 물리·천문학부(천문학전공)-
dc.date.awarded2013-08-
Appears in Collections:
College of Natural Sciences (자연과학대학)Dept. of Physics and Astronomy (물리·천문학부)Astronomy (천문학전공)Theses (Ph.D. / Sc.D._천문학전공)
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