Fabrication of Rectifying Optical Rectenna Array for Sensing and Light Energy Harvesting : 광 에너지 저장 및 검출을 위한 광학 정류 수신기 구현

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dc.description학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 재료공학부(하이브리드 재료), 2013. 2. 김기범.-
dc.description.abstractSince the advent of microwave power transmission in the 1960s, rectifying optical antennas, also referred to as Rectenna, has been pursued as a means to convert light into direct current (DC) output for sensing and possibly even light energy harvesting applications.
Rectenna is a combination of antenna and rectifier and it has been tried to use in visible-near infrared (near IR) spectrum nowadays. The extension from microwave to higher frequencies (few hundreds of THz) has remained a challenge, because of complicated fabrication for smaller feature sizes. In this dissertation, it is introduced that the initial successes in fabricating rectenna arrays using a special projection e-beam approach and conventional e-beam lithography. A key element in the designed function of rectenna device is the built-in rectification with the MIM junction arrays, to convert the alternating current (AC) in the nano antenna into DC output. For this built in MIM structure, two different metals with a large work function difference are used: aluminum and gold. Aluminum oxide of 10nm thickness was used as the insulating layer, formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). As it is mentioned previously, the nanowires patterning process was done by the special projection e-beam lithography method – atomic image projection e-beam lithography (AIPEL) developed over the years in our group (nanofabrication laboratory, NFL), at Seoul National University. The conventional e-beam lithography was also tried to pattern the nanowires. It was followed by the metal electrodes and metal pads, which were made by conventional e-beam lithography and photolithography, respectively. Each nanowire serves as an element antenna of the device, which varies in length from 300nm to 480nm. The target of frequency for operation is within near IR region. The aim is to complement the prevailing pn diode and solar cell technologies by providing a much broader spectral coverage. Since the visible-IR spectrum would reach the surface of Earth more than other waves, our rectenna device is expected to be more efficient.
A series of measurement was carried out in order to characterize the device structure and the current voltage dependence, as well as its optical response. The representative I-V characteristic shows a dramatic increase in current response, by ~3 orders of magnitude, to incident broad-band light (white light from a microscope). With experimental results, the spectral response to incident light in the near IR range is also discussed as well as spectral resonance.
dc.description.tableofcontentsAbstract i
List of Tables iv
List of Figures v

CHAPTER 1. Introduction 1
1.1 The energy issue 2
1.2 Rectenna 5
1.2.1 Applications 10
1.3 Historical background 15
1.4 Literature review 16
1.4.1 International research trends 16
1.4.2 National research trends 19
1.5 References 21

CHAPTER 2. Built in MIM structure 23
2.1 Introduction 24
2.2 Basic principles of MIM diode 24
2.2.1 Symmetry and asymmetry 25
2.2.2 Conduction Mechanism 28
2.2.3 J-V theory 30
2.3 Design for built in MIM structure 34
2.3.1 Design rule of antenna 34
2.3.2 Requirements of MIM diode for rectenna array 39
2.4 References 39

CHAPTER 3. Fabrication of built in MIM structure 40
3.1 Introduction 41
3.2 Fabrication of Au nanowires 44
3.2.1 AIPEL 44
3.2.2 Conventional e-beam lithography 47
3.3 Fabrication of rectifying metal electrodes 47
3.4 MIM built in structure 50
3.5 References 52

CHAPTER 4. Characterization 53
4.1 Introduction 54
4.2 Experimental details 54
4.3 Results and Discussions 56
4.3.1 Unilluminated and illuminated MIM structure 56
4.3.2 Antenna length effect 59
4.4 References 62

CHAPTER 5. Summary and Conclusions 63

Abstract (in Korean) 65

Acknowledgement (in Korean) 66
dc.format.extent3863538 bytes-
dc.publisher서울대학교 대학원-
dc.subjectRectifying antenna-
dc.subjectNano antenna-
dc.subjectOptical rectification-
dc.subjectLine patterning-
dc.subjectMIM diode-
dc.titleFabrication of Rectifying Optical Rectenna Array for Sensing and Light Energy Harvesting-
dc.title.alternative광 에너지 저장 및 검출을 위한 광학 정류 수신기 구현-
dc.contributor.AlternativeAuthorMin Yi Kang-
dc.contributor.affiliation공과대학 재료공학부(하이브리드 재료)-
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College of Engineering/Engineering Practice School (공과대학/대학원)Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering (재료공학부)Theses (Master's Degree_재료공학부)
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