S-Space College of Business Administration/Business School (경영대학/대학원) Dept. of Business Administration (경영학과) Theses (Master's Degree_경영학과)
Efficacy Perception and Individual Behavior in Teams: Team Identification as a Mediator
팀에서의 효능감 인식과 개인행동: 팀 동일시의 매개효과
- 경영대학 경영학과
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 대학원
- 학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 경영학과 경영학 전공, 2013. 2. 박원우.
- This study examined the effect of employees’ perception of team efficacy on identity formation process, which is followed by individual behavior in teams. Specifically, a moderated-mediation model was proposed to examine the effect of team efficacy perception on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and Counter-productive Work Behavior (CWB) through the underlying processes, team identification.
In this study, social cognitive theory was adopted to capture self-understanding process that guides the choice of behavior in workplace. Especially, individual perception of both team efficacy and self efficacy were considered because this study focuses more on “self in the team” to demonstrate intra-dynamics of teams in formation of individual motivation and behavior in teams. Thus so far, unlike previous researches, team efficacy was theorized and measured at individual-level. Paying attention to individual evaluation of the ability of their team, the cognitive process that forms individual motivation to exert effort to teams was expected to reveal. Moreover, the relative perspective was adopted to measure self efficacy perception, that is, efficacy social comparison. Whenever we confront information about how others, we tend to relate the information to ourselves. Self in teams cannot be free from the process of social comparison and this comparison process is also another motivational cue to individual members in behaving toward the team.
As cognitive, evaluative, and emotional processes underlying the relation between individual perception and behaviors in teams, team identification was demonstrated. Identification with a team closely related to individual’s sense of self and promotes individuals to behave in line with this social self-concept. Mediating role of team identification was also analyzed into three sub-dimensions.
Among behavioral constructs that provides the fundamental basis for cooperation and effective teamwork, OCB and CWB were proposed. Since these behaviors are less related to formal job descriptions, rules, and organizational policy that regulate individual behaviors in organization, they reflect individual intention in relation to team dynamics more than task performance does. In other words, OCB and CWB can be better understood as behavioral outcomes that show the salience of identification to the team and act to fulfill shared goals and norms.
Adding to that, perceived intra-team competition was included as an additional variable that strongly influences resource allocation decision at the end. Realistic conflict theory (e.g., Campbell, 1965) addresses how competition for valuable but scarce resources between groups (also termed negative interdependence) impacts intergroup relations. This can be also applied to the intragroup relations, and should be considered as a key contextual factor that leads to inner conflict between self interest and group interest.
Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that perceived team efficacy was positively associated with team identification. Second, a full mediation role of team identification was found on the relationship between efficacy perception and OCB, and team identification partially mediated the link between perceived team efficacy and CWB. However, no moderation effect of either efficacy social comparison or perceived intra-team competition was found.
Additional analysis using three independent dimensions of team identification further found out that all three sub-dimensions mediate the relation between perceived team efficacy and members’ behavior. Furthermore, it was concluded that the moderating effect of efficacy social comparison is only influential on self-categorization (one of sub-dimensions of team identification).
All in all, this study adopted both social categorization theory and social identity theory to underscore the importance of the actual degree to which an individual perceive team efficacy influences individual behavior in teams. Also, findings of this study shed new light on the psychological process through which individual-level team efficacy perception is related to work behavior. In other words, it can be concluded that team identification is a form of social currency whereby employees might increase their commitment to voluntary behaviors and decrease their tempted deviance behaviors. Limitations and suggestions for future research were also discussed.