S-Space College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (농업생명과학대학) Dept. of Forest Sciences (산림과학부) Theses (Master's Degree_산림과학부)
종이산업의 환경경영실태와 성과요인 분석
Environmental Management State and Performance factors of Paper Industry in Korea
- 농업생명과학대학 산림과학부
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 대학원
- 학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 산림과학부, 2014. 8. 윤여창.
- 본 연구는 환경경영의 시행이 기업가치를 높일 수 있다는 문제의식에서 시작하였다. 연구목적은 환경경영 시행 기업의 경영성과 확인이다. 환경성과와 재무성과의 관계, 환경경영 실태, 그리고 효과적인 환경경영을 위한 필수요인을 각각 양•질적 연구, 그리고 질적 비교연구 접근에서 관찰 및 분석하였다.
첫째, 환경경영의 결과로 상정한 환경성과변수와 기업의 재무성과 간 관계를 기업의 규모와 레버리지 비율을 통제하여 검증한 결과, 환경효율성 지표인 탄소생산성과 수익성지표인 매출액수익률과 총자산순이익률은 시차 1년을 기준으로 정(+)의 관련성을 보였으며, 역의 관계도 유의하였다.
둘째, 제지업종 내 우수한 재무성과와 오랜 환경경영 역사를 보인 기업들의 경영성과와 환경경영의 관련성에 대한 조사결과, 공통적으로 환경경영 시행단계에서 기업윤리와 기업정신과 같은 비재무적 성과에 비중을 두어 장기적인 안목으로 환경경영을 전략적으로 선택하였고, 환경경영의 평가단계에서 높은 재무성과에도 영향을 주었다고 응답하였다. 환경경영이 잘 시행되고 있는 사례에서는 공통적으로 환경경영의 시행단계에서 적극적인 국내/외 인증, 신기술 개발, 기업의 사회적 책임활동이 관찰되었다.
셋째, 효과적인 환경경영의 필수요인 도출을 위해 앞선 두 연구결과를 활용하여 비교 분석한 결과, 자사의 만족스러운 환경경영을 위한 필수 요인은 기업윤리 준수나 기업정신 계승과 같은 비재무성과, 적극적인 국외 인증 확보, 그리고 사회적 책임활동이었다.
본 연구를 통하여 기업의 경제성과 환경성을 동시에 추구하는 환경경영 기업윤리에 바탕을 두어 장기적인 관점에서 전략적으로 시행 될 경우, 경영성과와 환경성과가 상호 선순환 관계로 형성되어 기업 본연의 목적인 수익성과 함께 기업 외부의 평판과 내부 만족도 향상이라는 부가적 이득까지 확보할 수 있음을 확인하였다.
In case of enhancing the value of the firm by through environmental management, this study verified the relationship between environmental management result and firm performance in terms of direct causation. Each research hypothesis used a quantitative and qualitative method, and applied a qualitative comparative study. They will be shown later.
Hypothesis 1 [H1] is that higher environmental performance shows greater financial performance, especially in terms of profitability. Hypothesis 2 [H2] is that a companys achievement of greater environmental management enhances firm performance. Hypothesis 3 [H3] is that there are some necessary conditions for an effective environmental management.
Each of the conclusions drawn from the research questions came to a common conclusion that the environmental management paradigm shift phenomenon plays a certain role in real business field. There are three main findings of this study.
First, there is an interrelationship between ROS (Return On Sales), ROA (Return on Assets), which are measure of success in financial performance and carbon intensity, which is a measure of eco-efficiency measures. The relations and effect has been proven to have reverse relationship. Especially, this study differed from other past studies
it added an annual time concept. 1 year gap exists before and after a set standardized time. This can show the effect between the profitability index and carbon intensity index. This is very fundamental step to environmental management and enhancement of economic performance for corporate.
Second, through conducting case study of main firms which were implementing environmental management in paper industry, it has been found that they had advanced views on the future business environment change and prepared business strategy to maintain business ethics. 12 questionnaires which are composed of 12 items according business activity phase plan-do-see showed telling results. They are familiar to a theoretical stance which is based on entrepreneurship-oriented long-term view called, corporate sustainability management.All respondents answered that at the plan stage, they carried out the non-financial performance to keep business ethics, enterprise spirit, and to follow governments policy. Actually, they are doing various environmental management activities like corporate social activities, achievement of certifications of national and international scale and system management. Korean companies would acquire global certifications of ISO14001 series from a institute named ISO (International Organizations for Standardization) , and also would acquire FM (Forest Management) and CoC (Chain of Custody) from a institute named FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) as many as they could, which was a remarkable thing. Because these certificates are fundamental and tangible, Korean companies concentrated at getting them in the interest of expanding overseas market, particularly advanced countries such as EU union, Canada, and Australia.
Third, conducted by a Boolean analysis of QCA (qualitative comparative analysis), this study found necessary conditions for effective environmental management. Dependant Variable as a outcome equals to satisfaction of each firm, and explanatory variables such as structured conditions followed plan-do-see sequences. At the plan stage, there are 3 suggested conditions: adhering to the policy from a basic viewpoint, predicting financial performance in terms of economic value of the firm, and giving weight to a non-financial performance for the firms reputation, image, or vision. At the action phase, similar sorts of conditions are shown: reporting real environmental pollution study and diversified fluctuated business circumstances, and sharing internal resources of the firm with neighbor, customers, and subcontractors.
The QCA found out that the main condition is focusing on non-financial firm performance such as business ethics and enterprise spirit. Other conditions can be divided into two cases concerning environmental management carried out at the present. Research respondent companies conducting environmental management and satisfied with the situation were focused on non-financial performance at the plan stage, achieved a variety of environmental certifications and carried out many corporate social activities. Especially, higher satisfaction level revealed higher quality of environmental management. Because all conditions were considered at all phases of the business activity, there was accurate concentration and distribution of enterprise resources using by collaborative multitude knowledge. In other parts, biased results were found. The main cause is oriented respondents lack of knowledge about the environmental management.
Besides, observation of all cases pointed out necessary conditions from different context of combined combinations. Firms achieve appropriate level of environmental management when they maintain and handle the environmental performances consistently, have a pure ethical intent and develop their own vision about environmental management.
In conclusion, this study suggests that what makes a good company is quality environmental management. Because of final outcome, as a good company can get great environmental management performance, and adversely. This is included financial performance and non-financial performance, which is made by the positive feedback from each other. There are necessary conditions for effective environmental management, when the company takes on non-financial performance instead of financial performance at the starting point of environmental management, such as sustaining corporate social activities and acquiring various environmental certifications for certain client targets.