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Combined Effect of Natural Sources and High-pressure Treatment as an Alternative to Phosphate in Emulsion-type Meat Product
유화형 육제품 내 인산염 대체제로써 천연물과 초고압 동시처리 효과에 대한 연구

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Authors
이해림
Advisor
조철훈
Major
농업생명과학대학 농생명공학부
Issue Date
2017-02
Publisher
서울대학교 대학원
Keywords
PhosphateHigh-pressureSea tangle powderCombination treatment
Description
학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 농생명공학부, 2017. 2. 조철훈.
Abstract
본 연구에서는 천연물 소재 분말(자두, 감, 사골 추출물, 다시마)와 초고압 처리를 이용해 유화형 소시지 내 첨가되는 인산염을 대체하고자 하였고 그에 따라 실험 I(소재 선정), II(대체 가능성 확인), III(대체 시 문제 보완)으로 나누어 연구를 진행하였다. 실험 I 결과, 천연물 분말 중 다시마 분말이 육반죽의 가열감량을 가장 효과적으로 감소시켰으며 이에 따라 실험 II에서 3% 다시마 분말을 유화형 육제품에 첨가하여 그 대체 효과를 확인 하였다. 3% 다시마 분말의 첨가는 관능 평가(종합적 기호도)에 부정적인 영향 없이 유화형 소시지의 가열감량을 인산염을 첨가한 소시지(PC)만큼 향상 시켰으나 조직감적 특성은 PC만큼 향상되지 못하였다. 이에 조직감을 향상시키기 위해 실험 III에서 초고압을 추가적으로 처리하였으며, 그 결과 3% 다시마 분말을 첨가한 소시지의 조직감이 100 MPa을 처리함으로써 향상됨을 확인하였다. 더불어, 다시마 분말과 초고압의 동시 처리는 PC와 비슷하거나 더 향상된 항산화/항균 효과를 나타내었다. 따라서 다시마 분말과 초고압 동시 처리가 유화형 육제품의 인산염을 효과적으로 대체할 수 있을 것이라고 판단된다.
The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of natural powders and high-pressure (HP) processing as an alternative of phosphate in meat products.
Three experiments were conducted as follow.
Experiment I: Meat batters with 1, 2.5, and 5% of different natural powders (plum, persimmon, leg bone extract, and sea tangle) were prepared to find a substitute for phosphate. Physico-chemical properties of the meat batters containing different levels of natural powders were compared to meat batter added with/without 0.2% sodium pyrophosphate (PC, positive control
NC, negative control). Meat batters containing different levels of natural powders showed lower pH value compared to PC (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in cooking loss between NC and meat batters added with natural powders except treatment with sea tangle powder (STP). The cooking loss decreased with increase in addition level of STP in meat batter. In conclusion, the addition of 5% STP could be suggested as a substitute for phosphate in terms of WHC of meat batters. However, meat batter with 5% STP was not appropriate as an alternative in meat products due to its strong flavor. Based on results, the addition levels of STP adjusted to 1, 2, and 3% of STP. The addition of 3% STP effectively decreased cooking loss in meat batter among the treatments with STP. Therefore, the addition level (3% STP) was selected to evaluate the suitability as an alternative of phosphate in meat product.
Experiment II: Based on the results of experiment I, the 3% STP was added to emulsion-type sausages and then was evaluated the physico-chemical and sensory properties compared to sausages with (PC) /without (NC) 0.2% sodium pyrophosphate. The sausage samples added with STP had similar cooking loss values to PC (P > 0.05). The addition of STP significantly increased water holding capacity (WHC) and instrumental hardness in sausage samples compared to NC (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in gumminess, chewiness, and cohesiveness between NC and sausages containing STP. For scanning electron microscopic photographs, PC had thick protein binding structure was observed in all treatments. Thick of strand of PC was thicker than other treatments and more binding structures were formed in PC and sausage with STP compared to NC. No significant difference in juiciness of sensory evaluation was shown between sausages containing STP and PC. Treatment added with STP had significantly higher springiness, hardness, and overall acceptability than NC (P < 0.05). Overall, the addition of STP lead to great WHC (P < 0.05), while it was not effective on overall texture properties emulsion-type sausage (P < 0.05) compared to PC. Therefore, it is necessary to find how to improve the texture property of emulsion-type sausage added with 3% STP.
Experiment III: In present study, HP treatment [0.1 (1 atm), 100, and 200 MPa] was applied to meat batters added with different levels of STP (0, 1.5, and 3%) for improving the texture property. Parts of the meat batters treated with HP were used to determine the pH value and salt solubilized protein content. The other parts were cooked for physio-chemical analysis and microbiological safety analysis of cooked sausages. The pH value of sausage was significantly increased by simultaneous application of STP (1.5 and 3%) and HP treatment (200 MPa). The sausages added with STP and treated with HP showed similar cooking loss and WHC to PC. Sausage added with 3% STP and treated HP at 100 MPa showed similar hardness value compared to PC (P > 0.05) and higher value of gumminess and chewiness than other treatments except PC (P < 0.05). Salt-soluble protein composition was also affected by addition of STP. The addition of STP leads to decrease in myosin heavy chain (MHC) and actin and increase in proteins smaller than 30 kDa compared to NC and PC. Especially, HP treatment tended to increase slightly in small molecule protein. Antimicrobial effect was observed in sausages with 3% STP and HP treatment at 200 MPa. The combined effect of STP and HP treatment was presented in inhibition of lipid oxidation, protein oxidation in sausages compared to PC and/or NC regardless of pressure levels.
Therefore, a combination treatment of STP and HP could be used effectively as an alternative to phosphate in emulsion-type sausages because of their similar water holding capacity and instrumental hardness, and greater inhibition ability against lipid oxidation and bacterial growth compared with those of PC.
Language
English
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/125997
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College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (농업생명과학대학)Dept. of Agricultural Biotechnology (농생명공학부)Theses (Master's Degree_농생명공학부)
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