S-Space Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원) Dept. of International Studies (국제학과) Theses (Master's Degree_국제학과)
Analyzing the Cause and Current Situation of Human Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation in Cambodia
캄보디아의 人身賣買: 現地 人身賣買 調査 및 原因 分析
- 은기수 교수님
- 국제대학원 국제학과(국제지역학전공)
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 대학원
- Cambodia; human trafficking; sexual exploitation; poverty; reintegration; international organization; anti-trafficking; commercial sex industry; commercial sex; sex workers; human rights
- 학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 국제대학원 : 국제학과(국제지역전공), 2013. 2. 은기수.
- The main purpose of this research is to analyze the cause and current situation of continuous human trafficking for sexual exploitation in Cambodia despite the various actions taking place to combat the trafficking of women and children in Cambodia. In fact in Cambodia there is a large volume of funding available for anti-trafficking initiatives. Also there are lots of anti-trafficking campaigns as well as projects by international organizations. Intriguing question is that whether these plans for anti-trafficking are effective and efficient enough to combat human trafficking for sexual exploitation issues in Cambodia. This research questions why Cambodias commercial sex industry is still thriving despite various efforts to root out sexual exploitation made by a number of NGOs, international organizations, legislation and policies on national level.
The factors leading to human trafficking for sexual exploitation in Cambodia are numerous and varied. However, many unpublished reports by local NGOs and studies on the trafficking of women and children among Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand by the International Organization of Migration highlight some intertwined factors relating to economic, political, social, cultural and psychological issues. Although there are many elements that affected trafficking on individuals, this research hypothesis focuses on the two factors that contributed severely and tremendously to Cambodian human trafficking, especially sexual exploitation based on interviews and data. The root causes of human trafficking for sexual exploitation in Cambodia are twofold. First, it is due to Khmer Rouges genocidal regime. The poverty forced girls to serve as prostitutes by their parents or being trafficked. Interesting thing is that this poverty has created a disjuncture between Cambodian tradition of valuing virginity and the status of men and women. Also traditional attitudes toward women and sexuality in Cambodia are totally against the social phenomenon.
Second cause of human trafficking in Cambodia is the failure of international and local NGOs measures in human trafficking issues. The inefficient role of NGOs is rather turning Cambodia into a state highly dependent on international safeguards. Furthermore, the inefficient and ineffective reintegration programs for sex workers provided by international institutions are leading to re-trafficking issues.
The thesis will investigate the Cambodia human trafficking cases mostly found in Siem Reap Acting for Women in Distressing Situations (AFESIP) reintegration center, and focus on the elements of continuous human trafficking for sexual exploitation development in that particular country.
To do so, the research is going to focus mainly on the concept of female trafficking, human trafficking for sexual exploitation, contributing factors, and its impact and actions taken to date to combat the problem. This paper examines the key challenges and obstacles the government and the international community face. Lastly, the research discusses what still needs to be done both at the national and international levels to liberate these innocent girls. It is expected as well that the study will develop implications and recommendations to better alleviate trafficking in persons in Cambodia. Therefore the research expects to show the primary sources that escalate the trafficking for sexual exploitation in Cambodia.