S-Space Graduate School of Environmental Studies (환경대학원) Dept. of Landscape Architecture (환경조경학과) Theses (Master's Degree_환경조경학과)
The Formation and Development Characteristics of Kampung Kauman in Semarang, Indonesia
캄풍 카우만의 형성과 발전에 따른 도시공간 특성 연구
- 환경대학원 환경조경학과
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 환경대학원
- social cohesion; community intimacy; traditional Muslim village; faith-based community; Javanese culture
- 학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 환경대학원 : 환경대학원 환경조경학과, 2016. 2. 김세훈.
- Semarang is the capital and largest city in Central Java, Indonesia. Kampung Kauman, located in the Central District of Semarang, is a traditional village which shows the formation of Islamic settlements, nestled around the Masjid Agung(Great Mosque) since the 15th century along with its long history of Javanese culture. In addition to these cultural and historical backgrounds, Islamic settlements include the Javanese style of architecture and spatial plan such as mosque, alun-alun(square), kenjengan(little palace), and market. However, alun-alun and kenjengan have been removed and replaced by the expansion of market in Kampung Kauman due to high pressure of commercialization. Despite of these changes in the historical setting Kampung Kauman survives to be remained in both physical and social aspects.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the historical characteristics on the formation and development of Kampung Kauman and how they are related to the physical setting of this faith-based community or the spatial characteristics. It aims to find out how the traditional Muslim village with religious background stands against the urban conditions with high pressure of commercialization and finds its own way to the conservation.
The study results are as in the following. Experiencing dynamic changes for almost 500 years of the history, Kampung Kauman has inherited their own cultural values with the propagation of Islam as historical background, the traces of traditional Javanese city form, and the Dutch colonization influence. The analysis on the spatial characteristics of the urban space of Kampung Kauman identified the spatial elements into the three. Besides the Great Mosque Kaumans essential role as a center in the urban pattern of Kampung Kauman, the monument itself with the symbolic representation influences the community as a middle point in the spiritual world. The previous key function of alun-alun as an expansion of the courtyard or the front yard of the Great Mosque Kauman is changed to a commercial use, which acted as a catalyst for the economic growth of Kampung Kauman. Moreover, understanding the context of strong Islamic culture including the role of kyai(religious leader) in the development of community, the tradition to donate their own properties for religious use between local residents has been continued for a long period of time and encouraged the community development of Kampung Kauman. Lastly, the socio-economic space mainly focused on the commercial properties owned by local businessmen and their role in the business activity in Kauman strengthen the kinship and community intimacy existing in the community.
The historical development for 5 centuries and its related social theory were intimately connected to the urban space of Kampung Kauman. The Islam and Javanese culture entirely contributed to the formation of Kauman community and strengthened the social and cultural harmony beyond a mere sense of religiosity. As a result, the three types of faith were identified including the religious faith of Islam, faith in the community, and faith in the future or sustainability. Therefore, this study has its significance in understanding the community attributes based on its religiosity and how they influence the urban space of Kampung Kauman in the perspective of social, cultural, educational, and economic factors which contributed to the conservation of Kauman village.