Characteristics of Kampung Upgrading Programs in Indonesia

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환경대학원 환경계획학과
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서울대학교 환경대학원
Customary land tenureKampungIndonesiaSelf-help housingSite and ServiceKampung Improvement ProgramSlumSlum upgradingNational Development
학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 환경대학원 : 환경계획학과(도시및지역계획학전공), 2016. 8. 최막중.
The Government of Indonesia has continuously tried to solve slum problems, by initiating the Kampung Improvement programme (KIP) since 1969, which is considered to be one of the largest urban poverty relief site-and-service programme in the world. This project has been conducted by taking community-based approach among neighbourhood on customary land. Kampungs have traditionally been formed as a type of an indigenous village in Indonesia, Brunei and Malaysia, which has grown organically and incrementally for a long time without planning guidance or regulations, building codes or centralised, coordinated service provision.

This research aims to find out the characteristics of slum upgrading programme, with particular emphasis on security of tenure faced by inner-city Kampung community in the country. Kampungs still remains traditional community spirit since the 'site and service programme' first launched, and customary land exists in most of Kampungs where the residents possess the land with property tax receipts, notarised purchase receipts and letters from village head. The government, however, has not acknowledged village head's authority and this 'possessory title' for the compensation when Kampung land was purchased for the project. Formation of Kampung history has been reflected in the land tenure system and thereby influenced KIP. KIPs are accordingly required to take community-based approach to enhance self-development capabilities in Indonesia, reflecting that the traditional values are considered to serve as intangible norm for Kampung society.

Afterwards, land capitalism was introduced and democracy as well was proceeded in Indonesia. After decentralisation and democracy in Indonesia, there has been policy shift towards neo-liberal movement by World Bank. The bank disbursed knowledge and provided technical assistance for developing countries. Developing countries have started looking deeply into the importance of institution formulation and the need to include social development agendas, marked by poverty reduction and social inclusion. Programme Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat/National Programme (PNPM) for Community Empowerment) and Comprehensive Kampung Improvement Program(PNPM) in Indonesia -considered to be influenced by the Stiglitz's new aid policy- adopted (i) the comprehensive development
and (ii) poverty reduction strategy.
Indonesia has implemented a community-driven development approach. The urban poverty alleviation scheme has become comprehensive approaches for building infrastructures and service-provision platform in Kampung areas from the physical, social, economical, and environmental perspectives.

This research concluded following aspects: (i) dual land tenure system has been functioned even many twists and turns: Adat law as a land customary law coexists with statutory law in Indonesia
(ii) local government has potentials to initiate Kampung upgrading comprising physical improvement and social inclusion in parter with spontaneous Kampung
(iii) though internaltional organisations such as world bank contributed to suggest macro indicators and policy guidances for slum upgrading, they are unlikely to develop the implementation process. Policy implementation process is of importance and village community is thus required to play the leading and/or cooperative role in implementing Kampung upgrading and
(iv) a village governance system at practical and detailed level, needs to be designed for developing countries to implement their slum upgrading.
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Graduate School of Environmental Studies (환경대학원)Dept. of Environmental Planning (환경계획학과)Theses (Master's Degree_환경계획학과)
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