A Study on the Democratization in Myanmar: Myanmar Model on its Transition from Authoritarian Regime to Democratic Nation (1988-2011)

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국제대학원 국제학과
Issue Date
서울대학교 국제대학원
Democratic NationMilitary regimeSeven-Step road mapInternal factorsExternal factorsTop-Down elite modelPragmatic engagement
학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 국제대학원 국제학과, 2017. 8. EUN, KI SOO.

A Study on the Democratization in Myanmar:
Myanmar Model on its Transition from Authoritarian Regime to Democratic Nation (1988-2011)

Hla Thida Lynn
International Area Studies Major – DCPP
Graduate School of International Studies
Seoul National University

The Republic of the Union of Myanmar, formally known as Burma, has been transformed into the Democratic nation since 2011. The recent change of Myanmar political transition is the top-down elite model but there are some internal and external factors, which contributed to the political transformation of Myanmar. It seems that the transition from Authoritarian regimes to Democratization process was smoothly and peacefully. Therefore, this thesis will do analysis on the reasons of the Military Government, which made the transition in a gentle, smooth and peaceful manner. This research thesis will explain two main parts. The first part is the historical background of Myanmar Democratic transition and the second part is the analysis of the democratization process in Myanmar. The first part is that the Myanmar way of Democratization. Myanmar had ruled by the Military regimes since 1988 since then Myanmar had been isolated from the international community after the Tatmadaw Government/ Military Government took control of the State power. Due to the human rights and political situations in Myanmar, various sanctions were imposed by the United States, European Union and other Western Countries. However, the dramatic political transformation was happened in 2010 and the multiparty election was held on May 2010 and the Union Solidarity and Development Party won the election. Later, the Tatmadaw Government transferred the State power to the elected Party on 31 March 2011. In fact, Myanmars democratization process is a new model in the South East Asia and Asia. The Military Government had laid down and systematically implemented the Seven-Step Road Map since 2003 in order to transform the Democratic nation, and then transferred the power to the elected Party. The second part will analyze the internal and external factors to assist the democratic transition of Myanmar. It cannot be denied the fact that the transition was made by military Generals but without the encouragement of international community, the transition might take too long. Despite the sanctions from the United States and Western countries, China has acted as a good friend of Myanmar and ASEAN has also taken the persuasive role and built the constructive engagement in order to transform the democratic nation. The United States pragmatic engagement is also effective the transition of democratization. Furthermore, the role of civil society organization and the legitimacy of democratic leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi also played the important role of Myanmar democratization process. All of these factors were assisted the democratization process of Myanmar and Tatmadaw Government/ Military Government transferred the power to the elected Party. Finally, Myanmar is now on the right track to the consolidated democratic nation.

Keywords: Democratic Nation, Military regime, Seven-Step road map, Internal factors, External factors, Top-Down elite model, Pragmatic engagement
Student Number: 2015- 25094
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Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원)Dept. of International Studies (국제학과)Theses (Master's Degree_국제학과)
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