S-Space College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학) Dept. of Psychology (심리학과) Theses (Master's Degree_심리학과)
The Moderating Effects of Maternal Behaviors on Infant Fine-grained Temperament in the Development of Toddler Behavior Problems
영아기질과 걸음마기 문제 행동 간 종단적 관련성: 엄마 행동의 조절 효과를 중심으로
- 사회과학대학 심리학과
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 대학원
- infant temperament; mother-infant interactions; maternal behaviors; toddler behavior problems; externalizing behavior problems; internalizing behavior problems
- 학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 사회과학대학 심리학과, 2017. 8. 곽금주.
- Most studies have focused on the direct association between infant temperament and their behavior problems in toddlerhood. Even though abundant work on the relation between temperament and the development of behavior problems exists, many of them do not consider fine-grained approach. Furthermore, there is limited existing literature on moderating effects of maternal behaviors on these fine-grained infant temperament traits in predicting toddler behavior problems
thus, the information on specific paths of behavior problems in the development has been overlooked, and implications for these issues also have been limited. Therefore, the present study examined role of each fine-grained temperamental dimension in the development of toddler behavior problems. Additionally, this study also subdivided behavior problems into externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. This approach provides a deeper understanding of specific developmental paths in behavior problems. Notably, the current study demonstrated the mechanism how a given infant temperament can be moderated by a certain maternal behavior during the mother-infant interaction to affect the development of toddler externalizing and internalizing behavior problems
thus, the moderating effects of maternal behaviors on the association between fine-grained infant temperament and toddler behavior problems were examined in a sample of 83 Korean infants (35 males, 39 females). Infant Temperament was measured by the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R) at 12 months. Maternal behaviors were observed during the mother-infant free play interaction and were coded with Caregiver-Child Affect, Responsiveness, and Engagement Scale (C-CARES) when infants were 12 months old. Lastly, toddlers behavior problems were assessed by maternal reports of the Toddler Behavior Checklist (TBC) at 18 months. Results indicated the main effects of infant temperament on toddler externalizing behavior problems. Temperamentally more sad infants at 12 months exhibited more externalizing behavior problems. Infants who were more active and approachable also showed more externalizing problems later. Infant soothability and cuddliness also negatively associated with toddler externalizing problems. The findings also evidenced direct relations between infant temperament and internalizing behavior problems at 18 months. Temperamentally more fearful infants had more internalizing problems when they became toddlers, while infants who scored high in smiling/ laughter, duration of orienting, soothability and cuddliness demonstrated less internalizing problems in toddlerhood. There were also significant moderating effects of maternal behaviors on the relation between infant temperament and toddler behavior problems. For externalizing problems, the effects of infant activity level and soothability was varied by maternal responsive behaviors. As a function of maternal negative behaviors, infant negative emotionality, fear and low intensity pleasure differentially predicted the development of toddler externalizing problem behaviors. Maternal intrusive behaviors also moderated the effects of infant distress to limitation and activity levels in relation to the externalizing problems. For toddler internalizing behavior problems, maternal responsive behavior functioned as moderators in the association between infant fear and internalizing problems as well as in the relation between infant low intensity pleasure and internalizing behaviors. Maternal negativity also moderated infant fear and toddler internalizing behavior problems. Additionally, the effects of infant soothability also differentially predicted the development of toddler internalizing behavior problems as a function of maternal intrusive behaviors. The current study showed various fine-grained temperamental dimensions differently predicted toddler externalizing and internalizing behavior problems longitudinally. These findings demonstrated different functions of sub-dimensions of infant temperament on toddler behavior and emphasize the necessity of fine-grained approach on temperament. Furthermore, the present study evidenced the moderating effects of various maternal behaviors. The results suggested that a certain maternal behavior or a certain temperament is not always related to the best or the worst developmental results. Instead, various infant temperament can vary by different maternal behaviors in predicting the development of toddler behavior problems. Taken together, the current study explored more specific developmental paths of toddler behavior problems in relation to various infant temperament and maternal behaviors during infancy. These findings may allow researchers and parents to identify infants at risk by assessing their fine-grained temperament and to intervene between infant temperament and toddler behavior problem via appropriate maternal behaviors depending on infants specific temperament. Further explanations for the results and limitations are discussed later in the paper.