S-Space Graduate School of Public Administration (행정대학원) Dept. of Public Administration (행정학과) Theses (Master's Degree_행정학과)
A study on strengthening national foresight from a perspective of collaborative governance
협력적 거버넌스 기반의 국가 미래전략 강화
- 행정대학원 행정학과
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 행정대학원
- Foresight; The Presidential Council for Future and Vision(PCFV); Organization; Institution; Governance; Collaboration
- 학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 행정대학원 행정학과, 2017. 8. 김순은.
A study on strengthening national
foresight from a perspective of
- Case of Presidential Council for Future and Vision -
Jung, Joon Wook
Global Public Administration Major
Graduate School of Public Administration
Seoul National University
Korea achieved a remarkable economic growth by 7% for 50
years and became a member of the OECD in 1996. Nowaday, however,
Korea is facing new challenges such as slow growth, rapid ageing,
socioeconomic inequality and the global environmental problems. To
deal with new challenges, many developed countries have already
developed the national foresight programs for timely and practical
Under the fast follow strategy, Korea has set up the
government-led plans such as the five-year fiscal plans. Lee Myeong
Bak administration also tried to strengthen the function of foresight,
establishing the Presidential Council for Future and Vision (PCFV).
Although the PCFV designed a long-term national vision and suggested
new growth engines for economic growth, the national foresight under
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the PCFV was evaluated as being somewhat unstable, complicated, and
Then, what and how should Korea strengthen national foresight?
Most of studies can be divided into three groups. One focuses on
establishment of a national organization as a control tower which would
take care of overall national foresight. Another group puts more
emphasis on cooperation among government and civil society. The third
group of studies stresses on foresights practical impact on public
policies for action, arguing that there are no specific types of
governmental systems for successful foresight.
Regarding the arguments above, there are three related theories:
organization theory, institution theory and governance theory. Those
theories have their own perspectives and strengths for explaining reality,
but the recent trends of those theories commonly focus on the
importance of leadership and incentives.
First, an organization can achieve its goals with principles of
administration, Division of Work, Coordination of Work, Span of
Control, etc. However, decision making of public organizations can be
delayed, pursuing various goals such as fairness, openness, and
efficiency at the same time, which often conflict with one another. In
addition, public organizations with legal and procedural constraints can
lead to inevitable bureaucracy or red tape or garbage can model.
To overcome those problems, the recent studies are interested in the
analysis of humans in organization which focuses on factors including
work motivation, job satisfaction, leadership.
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Second, according to the institution theories, institutions can
solve informational problems, cooperation and coordination problems,
which leads to economic development by reducing transaction costs. In
addition, formal institutionalization such as proper role-distribution and
procedure is fundamental, but substantive institutionalization with as
proper incentive systems also should be considered. The economic
development in Korea was supported by proper institutions. In the
process, leadership which can transform working culture is critical to
establishing effective institutions.
Third, governance focuses on self-organizing, inter-organizational
networks and dynamic processes of social and political actors.
Recent complicated issues could not be handled by one or two
ministries. Active cooperation or collaboration among players is
necessary. Collaborative governance also stresses on the roles of civil
society in the process of decision-making and expects that the results of
collaboration connect to public policies. Of course, the process of
collaboration requires much time and many efforts.
Before establishing a new organization, this study suggests
looking at the limitations of the foresight organization of Lee
administration, the PCFV. Despite much expectation, many scholars
pointed out that it neither played a practical role of a control tower nor
produced systemic national foresight. Why did it fail? To explain the
reasons, this study focuses on 1) the process for foresight governance
such as sharing common aims and making consensus 2) the leadership
for public organizations to work together 3) substantive
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institutionalization for public officers and organizations to work
efficiently and effectively.
Basically, the governance was made in a top-down way. In the
process of making a governance, there was no concrete consensus about
common goals and proper role-distribution among various stakeholders.
As a result, stakeholders including ministries did not participate actively
in meetings, and furthermore disagreement among organizations
sometimes occurred openly. The governance which made in a way of
top-down should have been replaced by the collaborative governance
with the process of mutual trust, leadership and substantive institutions
including proper incentives.
Korea is facing new challenges under complexity and
uncertainty. In addition, Korea tries to transform from fast follower to
first mover. Long-term vision and foresight is necessary for timely
and effective policies. However, cooperation among stakeholders and
practical institutionalization are still weak. Thus, it is right time to
develop our own way considering common goals, mutual trust,
substantive institutionalization under presidential leadership.
Keywords: Foresight, The Presidential Council for Future and
Vision(PCFV), Organization, Institution, Governance,
Student number: 2014-23729