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A study on the Development Strategies of Fire Service Organization
소방조직 발전방향에 관한 연구

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Authors
조성원
Advisor
이수영
Major
행정대학원 행정학과
Issue Date
2018-02
Publisher
서울대학교 대학원
Keywords
fire servicefire service affairsredistributioncentral governmentlocal governmentfinanceorganization
Description
학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 행정대학원 행정학과, 2018. 2. 이수영.
Abstract
Recently, the new government abolished the Ministry of Public Safety and Security and established newly the National Fire Agency. In line with this, the government pronounced that it would push for the transition of fire officers position from local to national position. With the new fire service policies of the government, we have got a better opportunity to improve the fire service organization system in Korea than ever before. However, in spite of the establishment of the NFA and the government's commitment to the transition of fire officers position, the reality is that there still exist the pending issues related with fire service affairs and organizations in terms of legislation, finance, and organization & command system, etc.
Therefore, first, this study analyzed and summarized a variety of dissertations and research reports regarding the distribution of fire service affairs, fire service finance, and fire service organization through literature review.
Second, this study made use of an analytical method presenting statistical data related with the changes of the current fire service and disaster environment to show the present changes in fire service and disaster circumstance. As a result, the roles of fire service have changed in various ways from the past prevention and alertness of fire, fire suppression to rescue and EMS activities, various disaster management activities and the public safety management activities. As the demands of future fire service policy have increased in accordance with changes of fire service environment, new contemporary fire service policy is required. First, the incidence of disaster has increased and types of disaster have varied. Second, demands for fire service have increased drastically. Third, demands for improving the quality of fire service have increased.
Third, this study analyzed the distribution system and criteria of fire service affairs. It also reviewed the changes of fire service affairs in legislation. As a result, it is not appropriate to distribute the affairs with the simple disciplines in complicated contemporary public administration. The distribution of state affairs and autonomous affairs should be determined in terms of efficiency of performing a certain affair. The percentage of state fire service affairs in fire service related legislation has increased from 15.4% in 1991 to 48.5% in 2012. In contrast, percentage of autonomous fire service affairs is in decline. It is imperative that the range of fire service affairs designated as autonomous affairs should be re-established as national affairs through the revision of the Local Autonomy Act to secure the public safety in accordance with the changes of the fire service and disaster environments.
Fourth, this study analyzed the composition of fire service financial resources and the current status of fire service finance. As a result, although the proportion of state fire service affairs has increased, the financial burden ratio of central government is imperceptible. The financial burden ratio of central government was only 4.5% as of 2015. The financial support capacity of local government for fire service has decreased gradually in accordance with continuous deterioration of its own revenue base. The fiscal self-reliance ratio of localities has declined by 0.2% from 53.9% in 2008 to 53.7% in 2017. The local fire service organizations have much difficulty in reinforcing fire service personnel or modernizing fire service equipment as necessary. It is evident that the financial conditions of local governments play an important role in fire service force arrangement. It seems to be difficult to find a complete alternative to address the issues on the current fire service finance. Therefore, it is more realistic to pursue staged and gradual changes than drastic change of the structure of fire service finance. Until financial conditions between central and local government are improved, it is necessary to share the rate of responsibility for fire service on a fifty-fifty basis by regarding fire service affairs as joint affairs between central and local government. As a result, the central government would have to share at least around 40% in fire service budget. The concrete alternatives for securing fire service financial resources will be support expansion of central government subsidy, support expansion of emergency medical service fund, and introduction of Fire Service Tax, etc.
Fifth, this study analyzed the current fire service organization and command system and pointed out the problems of the current command system through case study on Sewol Ferry Disaster. As a result, the current fire service command and control system is dualized due to the organizational structure between central and local government. This dualistic command and control system on the scene leads to confusion of command system and difficulties in moving in perfect order in case of emergency or disaster. In this respect, unified chain of command system also should be structured in accordance with establishment of NFA and the transition of fire officers position which new government pronounced.
Lastly, this study reviewed fire service finance and organization system in foreign countries. As a result, each country operates various forms of fire service finances and organizations in terms of organizational and financial framework. Revenue source of fire service finance varies by country. Unlike Korea which covers fire service finance with local tax as general financial resources, local governments in the States raise fire service financial resources in a variety way. There exists a difficult aspect to suggest a standardized management model of fire organization among countries because the operation form of fire service organizations vary in different localities even in the country. However, Korea faces an unprecedented security threat due to North Korea's nuclear testing. In this regard, it is imperative to manage and operate fire service organizations at the nationwide level. Accordingly, in Korea, it is integral for protecting the lives of its people and their properties to move in an orderly way with the nationalized and comprehensive fire service organization system.
Language
English
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/142528
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Graduate School of Public Administration (행정대학원)Dept. of Public Administration (행정학과)Theses (Master's Degree_행정학과)
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