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Semiparametric time varying coefficient model for matched case-crossover studies

Cited 5 time in Web of Science Cited 4 time in Scopus

Ortega-Villa, Ana Maria; Kim, Inyoung; Kim, H.

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John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Statistics in Medicine, Vol.36 No.6, pp.998-1013
In matched case-crossover studies, it is generally accepted that the covariates on which a case and associated controls are matched cannot exert a confounding effect on independent predictors included in the conditional logistic regression model. This is because any stratum effect is removed by the conditioning on the fixed number of sets of the case and controls in the stratum. Hence, the conditional logistic regression model is not able to detect any effects associated with the matching covariates by stratum. However, some matching covariates such as time often play an important role as an effect modification leading to incorrect statistical estimation and prediction. Therefore, we propose three approaches to evaluate effect modification by time. The first is a parametric approach, the second is a semiparametric penalized approach, and the third is a semiparametric Bayesian approach. Our parametric approach is a two-stage method, which uses conditional logistic regression in the first stage and then estimates polynomial regression in the second stage. Our semiparametric penalized and Bayesian approaches are one-stage approaches developed by using regression splines. Our semiparametric one stage approach allows us to not only detect the parametric relationship between the predictor and binary outcomes, but also evaluate nonparametric relationships between the predictor and time. We demonstrate the advantage of our semiparametric one-stage approaches using both a simulation study and an epidemiological example of a 1-4 bi-directional case-crossover study of childhood aseptic meningitis with drinking water turbidity. We also provide statistical inference for the semiparametric Bayesian approach using Bayes Factors. Copyright (C) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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