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피지컬 컴퓨팅 도구를 활용한 메이커 교육 수업 모형 개발 : A Developmental Study of an Instructional Model for Maker Education using Single-Board Computer(SBC)

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Authors
김근재
Advisor
임철일
Major
사범대학 교육학과(교육공학전공)
Issue Date
2019-02
Publisher
서울대학교 대학원
Description
학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 사범대학 교육학과(교육공학전공), 2019. 2. 임철일.
Abstract
메이커 교육은 학습자가 다양한 디지털 제작도구를 활용하여 유의미한 산출물을 제작하고 스스로 지식과 기술을 구성하기 때문에 학습자 주도적인 성격과 구성주의에 따른 학습을 목적으로 한다. 특히, 학습자가 학교 교육을 통해 습득한 지식 및 기술에 대한 체화를 유도할 수 있으며 실생활 속에서의 실제적 문제해결 경험과 유기적으로 연계 가능하므로 학습자의 문제해결력, 창의성 등의 고차적 사고 능력 함양이 가능하다. 이상의 중요성을 고려하여 초등학교 맥락에서 적용하려는 시도가 이루어지고 있으며 보다 효과적인 메이커 교육을 위한 한 가지 방안으로 학교 현장에서 손쉽게 접할 수 있는 디지털 제작도구인 피지컬 컴퓨팅 도구를 활용하려는 노력이 이루어지고 있다.
하지만 초등학교 현장에서 이루어지는 메이커 교육 관련 주요 연구들은 학습자의 도구 활용 능력 향상이나 학교 내에 메이커 스페이스를 어떻게 구축하고 활용할 것인지에 대한 방안을 중점적으로 탐색하고 있다. 특히 피지컬 컴퓨팅 도구를 활용하는 경우 대부분 교수자 주도의 학습 목표 설정 및 활동, 교육용 프로그래밍 언어와 피지컬 컴퓨팅 도구 기능 중심의 일반적인 코딩교육의 형태에 국한되는 경우가 대부분이고 적용 측면에서는 일회적으로 이루어지는 경우가 대다수이다.
이상의 문제점들의 원인 중 하나로는 교수자가 학습자 활동을 촉진 및 지원할 수 있는 상세하고 정교화된 수업 모형과 교수전략이 부족하기 때문이다. 일부 선행 연구에서 메이커 수업 모형을 제시하고 있지만 고려해야 할 요소와 특성을 종합적으로 반영하지 못한 한계를 지닌다. 이는 학교 교육 맥락에서 메이커 교육이 주목받고 있지만 실제 현실에서는 충분히 활용되고 있지 못함을 나타낸다. 따라서 본 연구는 초등학교 맥락의 피지컬 컴퓨팅 도구를 활용하는 메이커 수업에서 실제적으로 활용할 수 있는 수업 모형과 교수전략을 탐색하는 목적으로 첫째, 피지컬 컴퓨팅 도구를 활용한 메이커 교육 수업 모형을 무엇인가? 둘째, 피지컬 컴퓨팅 도구를 활용한 메이커 교육 교수전략은 무엇인가? 셋째, 개발된 메이커 수업 모형과 전략에 대한 교수자 및 학습자의 반응은 어떠한가?를 연구문제로 설정하였다.
본 연구는 설계·개발 연구방법의 절차에 따라 진행되었다. 먼저 선행문헌 검토를 통해 수업 모형과 교수전략 초안을 도출하였다. 다음으로 교육공학 전문가 5인과 초등학교 교사 3인에게 두 차례에 걸쳐 전문가 타당화를 거친 뒤 수업 모형과 교수전략을 수정 및 보완하였다. 이를 서울 소재 A 초등학교 6학년 수업에 적용해봄으로써 교수자 1인과 학습자 28인의 반응과 의견을 확인하였다. 이후 수집된 양적, 질적 자료를 분석한 뒤 모형과 전략에 반영하여 최종적으로 피지컬 컴퓨팅 도구를 활용한 메이커 교육 수업 모형과 교수전략을 도출하였다. 이와 함께 본 모형과 전략이 적용된 수업이 학생들의 컴퓨팅 사고력, 메이커 정신에 어떠한 영향을 미쳤는지 질문지, 면담, 사전·사후 검사를 통해 살펴보았다.
연구 결과, 1)공감하기, 2)메이킹 문제 정의하기, 3)재료 및 도구 특성 파악하기, 4)컴퓨팅 산출물 조립하기, 5)리믹스를 활용한 알고리즘 설계 및 코딩하기, 6)컴퓨팅 산출물 창의적 구성하기, 7)알고리즘 및 컴퓨팅 산출물 수정 및 개선하기, 8)공유하기, 9)성찰하기, 10)종합하기의 총 10개의 단계로 구성된 수업 모형을 개발하였다. 교수전략의 경우 메이커 교육 전반에 걸쳐서 유념해야 할 일반설계전략 6개와 23개의 상세지침이 개발되었다. 개발된 수업 모형과 교수전략을 통한 컴퓨팅 사고력과 메이커 정신에 대한 사전-사후 검사 결과 컴퓨팅 사고력의 경우 100점 만점에 60.02점에서 71.93점으로 상승한 것으로 나타났다(t=7.349, df=27, p<.000). 메이커 정신 또한 평균 3.77점에서 4.12점으로 상승한 것으로 나타났다(t=5.967, df=27, p<.000). 이를 통해 본 모형과 전략이 학습자의 컴퓨팅 사고력과 메이커 정신에 긍정적인 영향을 미쳤다는 것을 확인할 수 있었다
본 연구는 종합적 접근을 통해 보다 최적화된 수업 운영이 이루어질 수 있는 수업모형을 개발하였다는 점, 초등학교 맥락을 고려하여 학교 교육 현장에서 유용하게 활용할 수 있는 교수전략을 탐색하였다는 점, 그리고 이에 대한 실제적 적용을 통해 경험적으로 접근했다는 점에서 의의를 지닌다.
The maker education aims to learn through learner-centered characteristics and constructivism because the learners use various digital fabrication tools to make meaningful artifacts and construct knowledge and skill by themselves. In particular, it emphasizes the meaningful process of making artifacts through using tools, technologies, and materials which the learners choose by themselves. Also they set their own goals which they want to achieve. These enable the learners to engage with the knowledge and skills acquired through school education and can connect with the authentic problem solving experience in the real life, which can be possible to cultivate high-order thinking ability such as problem solving ability and creativity. In the context of elementary school, there is an attempt to apply the sigle-board computer, which is a digital fabrication tool that can be easily accessed at the school site, as a method for effective maker education.
However, major studies of maker education in elementary school focus on the ways to improve learner's ability using tools and how to build and utilize maker space within the school. In particular, most cases of using single-board computer in education are limited to the forms of general coding education which centered on teacher-driven learning goals and activities. Also they usually only focused on how to use educational programming language, and single-board computer which makes the lessons to bee one-ff.
One of the causes of these problems is the lack of prescription about how to integrate the single-board computer in the maker education to be a learner-centered characteristic. There is a lack of detailed and elaborated instructional models and instructional strategies which can facilitate and support learners activities. Although some previous studies have suggested effective maker instructional models, they have limitations that do not fully reflect the factors and characteristics to be considered. This suggests that the maker education is attracting attention in the context of school education but it is not fully performed in reality.
The purpose of this study is to explore instructional models and instructional strategies that can be practically used in the elementary school context. In addition, confirming the responses of instructors and learners to the developed instructional model and instructional strategies. The specific research problems are as follows. First, what is the instructional model of maker education using single-board computer? Second, what is the maker education teaching strategy using single-board computer? Third, what is the response of teachers and students to the developed maker instructional model and instructional strategies of maker education using single-board computer?
This study was conducted according to the procedure of design and development research method. First, through the literature review I explored the framework of computational thinking and maker education, the utilization of single-board computer, and the model of maker education that can be used in elementary school context. After that, I draw up a instructional model and a teaching strategy that reflects the factors which should be considered when using single-board computer for maker education. They also include the characteristics of learner, teacher, and educational environment when conducting elementary school maker education. Next, the instructional model and instructional strategies were revised after five experts of educational technology and three of elementary school teachers peformed expert validation. This was applied to the sixth grade of 'A' elementary school in Seoul, and the responses and opinions of one instructor and twenty eight learners were confirmed. The learners were involved in a group of three or four people based on their topic of interest. They searched the problem situations in the school and devised solutions to them, and made making artifacts using microbits and solved real-life problems. During the course, the instructor continuously provided guidance including specific and detailed scaffolding according to the instructional model and instructional strategies which facilitate the making activities. After analyzing the collected quantitative and qualitative data, the results were used to develop the final instructional model and a instructional strategies using single-board computer for maker education. In addition, we examined the effects of the model and the strategies applied to the students' computational thinking skills and maker mindset.
The results are as follows: the final instructional model includes 10 stages as follows. 1) Empathize, 2) Defining the problem, 3) Tinkering, 4) Making for assembly 5) Designing algorithms and programming with remix 6) Making for creative construction, 7) Debugging&Modifying the computational artifact, 8) Sharing, 9) Reflection, 10) Wrap-up. The model includes three phases which are before making process, during making process, after making process. Especially, teacher can choose the stage defining the problem if a new making artifact is needed after the completion of the making process once, and if not teacher can choose wrap-up stage to finish the maker education. So the model has both the characteristic of circularity and linearity.
The instructional strategies consist of six general design strategies as follows: 1) Provide a learning experience which solves the practical problems around learners through making activities 2) Select and use various methods and technologies to effectively solve problem through making activities 3) Identify the characteristics of materials and tools 4) Restructure the content and difficulty of the making activities based on the learner's characteristics and level, 5) Encourage the making process despite the learner encountering difficulties and failure 6) Support the sharing of output and processes created through making activities. And twenty three detailed guidelines developed to support sharing of output and processes created through making activities. The developed instructional strategies provide a variety of methods and technologies to provide a restructured learning experience. And to achieve problem solving effectively by taking into account the characteristics and level of learners so that the learner can resolve the authentic problems in the making activities by teachers scaffolding and support.
Strengths of this model and strategies which teacher suggested are as follows: Making activities dealing with real-life problems induce the interactive participation of students throughly. Also providing structured problem solving plan which includes how to make the making artifact and learning activities using remixing, making for assembly are helpful for teacher and students. On the other hand, some stage of the model needs to be rearranged, and cause some difficulty in using instructional model and strategies depending on the level of knowledge and skills of teachers. Improvements should be made in order to rearrange the stage of the instructional model in order to facilitate the making activities. And the learning activity time should be secured enough to learn basic functions of the educational programming language in the making activities using single-board computer.
The strengths suggested by the students are as follows: Collaborative modification of artifacts is continuously done through repetitive reflection, sharing and feedback. Also students thought that making by assembly activities, and the establishment of a maker fair were advantageous. The weakness is that more learning time should be needed for coding skill which requires some time to master. To improve the model and strategy, providing sufficient learning resources when making artifacts, providing various materials and tools, and securing sufficient time for classes should be needed.
As a result of pre-post test on computational thinking and maker mindset using the developed instructional model and instructional strategies, the computational thinking skill increased from 60.02 to 71.93 on the scale of 100 points (t = 7.349, df = 27, p < .000). Also maker mindset increased from the average of 3.77 to 4.12 (t = 5.967, df = 27, p <.000). It is confirmed that this model and strategies had a positive effect on learner's computational thinking skill and maker mindset.
The purpose of this study is to develop the instructional model which can provide more optimized classroom management through comprehensive approach and explore the instructional strategies which can be useful in the field of school education considering the elementary school context. It is also meaningful in that applying the model and strategies empirically.
Language
kor
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/151148
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College of Education (사범대학)Dept. of Education (교육학과)Theses (Master's Degree_교육학과)
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