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Video Streaming Leveraging Peer-to-Peer Techniques

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Authors
박건우
Advisor
권태경
Major
전기·컴퓨터공학부
Issue Date
2012-02
Publisher
서울대학교 대학원
Abstract
Video streaming services are getting more popular as the average link capacity
in the Internet becomes greater for end hosts. One popular way to disseminate video
files among numerous users is to leverage peer-to-peer (P2P) systems. P2P systems
can be easily deployed since a participating peers resources (i.e., upload link bandwidth)
can be exploited to distribute contents. However, how to adapt to leaving peers
and how to encourage peers to contribute resources voluntarily are still challenging
issues. In this dissertation, we propose P2P architectures for video on demand and
live streaming services.
Video on demand services have been increasingly proliferated in the Internet.
However, BitTorrent is not designed with video streaming requirements and hence
suffers from long setup delay. Therefore, we propose Waterfall that splits the whole
swarm into multiple swarms, which are then cascaded by the unit scene sequence. In
this way, peers in a swarm download the chunks of the same video unit scene from
the peers in the same swarm as well as the ones in the preceding swarm that already
moved on to the next unit scene. The average setup delay and maximum playback
rate of Waterfall are analyzed. Experiments from a wide area network testbed reveal
that Waterfall achieves two to three times higher playback rate and a significantly low
setup delay than the prior BitTorrent-based streaming solutions.
There also have been a lot of research efforts on peer-to-peer (P2P) live streaming
services. In this dissertation, we propose Climber, an adaptive P2P live streaming
system with incentives for resilience. Climber is based on the hybrid structure of a
tree and a mesh, so as to achieve self-improvement and adaptation to users dynamic
joining and leaving. Moreover, Climber substantiates an incentive mechanism that
provides better resilience for peers with more upload bandwidth allocated. Simulation
results reveal that Climber significantly reduces the topology maintenance cost
compared to SplitStream and NICE-PRM. Also, simulation and analytical results verify
that Climber can bound the level of disruption by dynamically adapting to the user
churning rate.
In order to provide a high quality P2P live streaming service, it is essential to
handle user dynamics effectively to mitigate streaming disruptions caused by user
churn. We collect massive user traces from the largest P2P live streaming site in Korea,
namely, Afreeca. Based on the trace results obtained, we analyze user dynamics
in the service. In particular, we analyze the user behaviours in terms of three criteria:
long-stay users, short-stay users, and user churn. (1) The results show that a certain
amount of long-stay users exist in a live streaming session, and it is challenging to
recognize the long-stay users online, which will help to provide more resilient live
streaming service. (2) Around 20% of the users stay in a session shorter than 1%
of the session length. Short-stay users incur high control overhead and we discuss
how to efficiently handle the short-stay users. (3) By intentionally disrupting a video
streaming, we closely observe the users leaving behaviour and suggest the acceptable
recovery time to keep the users remaining the session. We believe our findings
can be useful not only to P2P live streaming systems, but also to every live streaming
systems.
Language
eng
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/156627

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College of Engineering/Engineering Practice School (공과대학/대학원)Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering (컴퓨터공학부)Theses (Ph.D. / Sc.D._컴퓨터공학부)
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