Solution-processed n-type graphene doping for cathode in inverted polymer light-emitting diodes
- Kwon, Sung-Joo; Han, Tae-Hee; Kim, Young-Hoon; Ahmed, Towfiq; Seo, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Hobeom; Kim, Dong Jin; Xu, Wentao; Hong, Byung Hee; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Lee, Tae-Woo
- Issue Date
- ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol.10 No.5, pp.4874-4881
- n-Type doping with (4-(1,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)phenyl) dimethylamine (N-DMBI) reduces a work function (WF) of graphene by similar to 0.45 eV without significant reduction of optical transmittance. Solution process of N-DMBI on graphene provides effective n-type doping effect and air-stability at the same time. Although neutral N-DMBI act as an electron receptor leaving the graphene p-doped, radical N-DMBI acts as an electron donator leaving the graphene n-doped, which is demonstrated by density functional theory. We also verify the suitability of N-DMBI-doped n-type graphene for use as a cathode in inverted polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) by using various analytical methods. Inverted PLEDs using a graphene cathode doped with N-DMBI radical showed dramatically improved device efficiency (similar to 3.8 cd/A) than did inverted PLEDs with pristine graphene (similar to 2.74 cd/A). N-DMBI-doped graphene can provide a practical way to produce graphene cathodes with low WF in various organic optoelectronics.
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