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Role of ethambutol and rifampicin in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease

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Authors
Kim, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Jong S; Kwak, Nakwon; Cho, Jaeyoung; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Han, Sung K; Yim, Jae-Joon
Issue Date
2019-11-11
Citation
BMC Pulmonary Medicine, 19(1):212
Abstract
Abstract

Background
A three-drug regimen (macrolide, ethambutol, and rifampicin) is recommended for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD). Although macrolide has proven efficacy, the role of ethambutol and rifampicin in patients without acquired immune deficiency syndrome is not proven with clinical studies. We aimed to clarify the roles of ethambutol and rifampicin in the treatment of MAC-PD.


Methods
Patients treated for MAC-PD between March 1st, 2009 and October 31st, 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. Rates of culture conversion, microbiological cure, treatment failure, and recurrence were compared according to the maintenance (≥6 months) of ethambutol or rifampicin with macrolide.


Results
Among the 237 patients, 122 (51.5%) maintained ethambutol and rifampicin with macrolide, 58 (24.5%) maintained ethambutol and macrolide, 32 (13.5%) maintained rifampicin and macrolide, and 25 (10.6%) maintained macrolide only. Culture conversion was reached for 190/237 (80.2%) patients and microbiological cure was achieved for 129/177 (72.9%) who completed the treatment. Treatment failure despite ≥12 months of treatment was observed in 66/204 (32.4%), and recurrence was identified in 16/129 (12.4%) who achieved microbiological cure. Compared with maintenance of macrolide only, maintenance of ethambutol, rifampicin or both with macrolide were associated with higher odds of culture conversion [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI): 18.06, 3.67–88.92; 15.82, 2.38–105.33; and 17.12, 3.93–74.60, respectively]. Higher odds of microbiological cure were associated with maintenance of both ethambutol and rifampicin with macrolide (OR, 95% CI: 5.74, 1.54–21.42) and macrolide and ethambutol (OR, 95% CI: 5.12, 1.72–15.24) but not macrolide and rifampicin. Maintenance of both ethambutol and rifampicin with macrolide was associated with lower odds of treatment failure (OR, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.01–0.53) compared with macrolide only, while maintenance of one of these with macrolide was not. Maintenance of both ethambutol and rifampicin or one of these with macrolide did not decrease the probability of recurrence when compared with macrolide only.


Conclusions
Maintenance (≥6 months) of ethambutol and rifampicin with macrolide was associated with the most favorable treatment outcomes among patients with MAC-PD. Given the association between ongoing ethambutol use and microbiological cure, clinicians should maintain ethambutol unless definite adverse events develop.
URI
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12890-019-0982-8

https://hdl.handle.net/10371/164731
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College of Medicine/School of Medicine (의과대학/대학원)Internal Medicine (내과학전공)Journal Papers (저널논문_내과학전공)
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