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Sodium intercalation chemistry in graphite

Cited 223 time in Web of Science Cited 222 time in Scopus
Authors
Kim, Haegyeom; Hong, Jihyun; Yoon, Gabin; Kim, Hyunchul; Park, Kyu-Young; Park, Min-Sik; Yoon, Won-Sub; Kang, Kisuk
Issue Date
2015-10
Citation
Energy and Environmental Sciences, Vol.8 No.10, pp.2963-2969
Abstract
The insertion of guest species in graphite is the key feature utilized in applications ranging from energy storage and liquid purification to the synthesis of graphene. Recently, it was discovered that solvated-Naion intercalation can occur in graphite even though the insertion of Na ions alone is thermodynamically impossible; this phenomenon enables graphite to function as a promising anode for Na-ion batteries. In an effort to understand this unusual behavior, we investigate the solvated-Na-ion intercalation mechanism using in operando X-ray diffraction analysis, electrochemical titration, real-time optical observation, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The ultrafast intercalation is demonstrated in real time using millimeter-sized highly ordered pyrolytic graphite, in which instantaneous insertion of solvated-Na-ions occurs (in less than 2 s). The formation of various stagings with solvated-Na-ions in graphite is observed and precisely quantified for the first time. The atomistic configuration of the solvated-Na-ions in graphite is proposed based on the experimental results and DFT calculations. The correlation between the properties of various solvents and the Na ion co-intercalation further suggests a strategy to tune the electrochemical performance of graphite electrodes in Na rechargeable batteries.
ISSN
1754-5692
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/165068
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1039/c5ee02051d
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College of Engineering/Engineering Practice School (공과대학/대학원)Dept. of Material Science and Engineering (재료공학부) Journal Papers (저널논문_재료공학부)
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