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소집단 과학 논변 활동에서 초임 교사의 반응적 교수 실행의 특징과 한계 탐색: 프레이밍을 중심으로 : Exploring Characteristics and Limitations of the Novice Teachers Responsive Teaching Practice in Small Group Scientific Argumentation: Focusing on Framing

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Authors
김봉준
Advisor
김희백
Issue Date
2020
Publisher
서울대학교 대학원
Description
학위논문(석사)--서울대학교 대학원 :사범대학 과학교육과(생물전공),2020. 2. 김희백.
Abstract
과학 지식은 사회적 합의를 통해 구성된다. 이러한 관점에 따라 과학 수업에서 학생들에게 과학 지식의 구성 과정을 경험시켜야 한다는 관점이 대두되었으며, 과학적 논변 활동을 과학 수업에 도입해야 한다는 주장이 제기되어 왔다. 하지만 전통적인 수업에 익숙한 학생들은 논변 활동에 참여하는 것에 어려움을 느끼므로 논변 활동을 과학 수업에 도입할 때 교사의 역할은 중요하다. 학생들을 논변 활동에 생산적으로 참여시키기 위한 방법으로서 반응적 교수가 대두되었으며, 교사의 프레이밍은 교사의 반응적 교수 실행에 영향을 미친다. 하지만 초임 교사의 경우 논변 활동을 생산적으로 프레이밍하더라도 반응적 교수를 실행하는 데에 어려움을 겪는다.

본 연구는 과학 논변 활동을 생산적으로 프레이밍하는 초임 과학교사의 반응적 교수 실행의 특징과 한계에 대해 프레이밍 관점에서 분석했다. 논변 수업을 해본 적이 없는 초임 교사와 2개 학급 총 52명의 중학생이 연구에 참여하였고, 자극과 반응 단원에서 논변 활동을 도입하였다. 학생들은 귀의 구조와 기능을 학습한 뒤, 고막이 찢어지면 들을 수 없을까에 대한 개인의 논변을 구성하고 논의를 통해 소집단 논변을 구성하는 활동에 참여하였다. 소집단 논의 중에 교사의 개입이 활발했던 소집단 중에서 소집단 구성원의 특징은 유사했으나 논변 활동의 양상이 달랐던 두 소집단을 초점 집단으로 선정하였다. 교사가 수업에 논변 활동을 도입하기 전 참여했던 워크숍, 학생들의 소집단 논의 과정과 교사 면담, 학생 면담, 학생 추가 면담은 녹화·녹음되었다. 교사가 참여했던 워크숍, 교사 면담 전사본은 교사의 프레이밍을 분석하기 위한 주 자료로 사용되었으며, 학생들의 소집단 논의 과정 전사본은 교사의 반응적 교수 실행을 분석하기 위한 주 자료로 사용되었다.

연구 결과, 교사는 논변 활동에서 촉진자로서 학생들의 아이디어를 공유시킨 후, 서로 다른 의견을 합의해야 한다고 프레이밍하고 있었다. 이는 반응적 교수 실행에서 일치하게 나타났다. 교사는 소집단 과학 논변 활동에서 촉진자로서 학생 사고를 이끌어내고 탐색함으로써 학생 의견을 더욱 명료하게 제시하도록 논의를 아이디어 공유 논의로 프레이밍한 후, 서로 다른 의견의 불일치를 부각시키며 논의를 논쟁적 논의로 전환시키고자 노력하였다. 그 결과, 소집단 1의 구성원들은 서로의 의견을 합의하기 위하여 논쟁적 논의에 참여하였다. 하지만 교사의 생산적인 프레이밍이 학생들의 생산적인 실행을 보장하지는 않았다. 교사는 소집단 2의 논의에서 성공적으로 학생들의 아이디어를 이끌어내고 탐색하지 못했다. 그 결과, 소집단 2의 구성원들은 논쟁적 논의에 참여하지 않았으며, 의견을 합의하지 못한  채로 교실 전체 논의에 참여하였다. 초임교사는 학습자에 대한 이해가 부족하여 학생들의 추론을 정교화시킬 때 개념을 활성화시켜주는 데에 한계를 보였으며, 이로 인해 학생들의 현재 논변과 최종적으로 구성해야 할 논변 사이의 간극을 좁혀주지 못했다. 또한, 교사는 학생들의 인식론적 프레이밍에 주목하지 못했다는 한계를 보였다. 교사는 논변 활동을 개념 학습을 위한 도구로만 인식하여 수업에 도입하였으며, 이로 인해 교사는 논변 활동 동안 학생들의 개념 이해와 개념 적용에 주로 집중하였고 학생들이 어떻게 논변 활동에 참여하고 있는지에 대해서는 주목하지 않은 모습을 보였다. 본 연구는 과학 수업에서 학생에게 반응적인 교수를 실행하는 문화를 정착시키는 데에 기여할 것이다.
The purpose of this study is to explore characteristics and limitations of a novice teacherss responsive teaching practice, who framed argumentation productively. One novice teacher and two eighth-grade classes participated in this study. Two of the small student groups with active teacher intervention were selected as focus groups. Students engaged in argumentation activity where they built an argument for hearing if the eardrum was torn. We recorded the class and interviews with the teacher and the students, which were transcribed for use in the analysis of the teachers responsive teaching practices and epistemological, positional framing. We discovered that teacher thought that he should position himself as a facilitator to encourage students to present ideas clearly and to reach consensus. His framing was consistent in responsive teaching practices. Positioning himself as a facilitator, after he framed the discussion as idea sharing discussion by eliciting and probing students idea, he framed the discussion as argumentative discussion by taking up students idea and pointing out disagreement between them. As a result, members of small group 1 engaged in argumentative discussion and reached consensus. However, the teachers productive framing did not guarantee students productive argumentation practice. In small group 2, he did not elicit and probe students ideas successfully. As a result, members of small group 2 did not engaged in argumentative discussions. He responded limitedly to the lack of students' conceptions because of lack of understanding about learners. Also, he mainly attended to students reasoning, and not to students framing about argumentation because he considered argumentation only as a tool for conceptual learning. The result of this study will contribute to the establishment of responsive teaching in science classrooms.
Language
kor
URI
http://dcollection.snu.ac.kr/common/orgView/000000158880
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College of Education (사범대학)Dept. of Science Education (과학교육과)Biology (생물전공)Theses (Master's Degree_생물전공)
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