S-Space Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원) Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.85-88(2019)
숙종~영조시기 三南 등의 방어 체제 정비와 변화: 교통로에 위치한 요충지 방어의 확장을 중심으로 : The maintenance and change of the defense system of Sukjong-Youngjo period, especially Samnam(三南) and other province: Focusing on the expansion of the defense in strategic traffic point
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
- 한국문화, Vol.85, pp. 93-127
- 要害 ; 嶺隘 ; 山城 ; 鎭堡 ; 邊將 ; 守令으로의 지휘권 통일 ; 邑治移設 ; strategic traffic point ; mountain path ; mountain fortress ; city wall of town ; local defense system
- Dynasties of the Korean peninsula traditionally focused on mountain fortress(山城). However, the lesson of war between Qing dynasty(丙子胡亂) showed that the mountain fortress could not block the enemys direct course to major city. In response, the Chosun regime strengthened defense of strategic traffic point as well as the construction of mountain fortress after the war. During the Sukjong(肅宗) period, the defense of strategic traffic point centered on the mountain path(northern province : 平安道, 黃海道, 咸境道), port, river mouth, island(southern province : 慶尙道, 全羅道, 忠淸道). And its major units were border military commanders(邊將) & military outposts(鎭堡).
Changes in the political-financial situation of the Youngjo(英祖) period made it difficult to maintain a defense system centered on coastal point in southern province. As an alternative to this, Chosun regime focused land-based defence system just like northern area. Therefore, land defence system centered on mountain path extended to the southern provice and eastern province(江原道). Meanwhile, the military command near the traffic point was unified from the border military commander to local governor(守令).
Due to the inconvenience of mountain residents and the labor of manpower, the defense system was limited. So the city wall of town(邑城), the administrative center of the peoples inhabitants, became the center of defense. However, there is a historical significance in that this process not only shows the Chosuns response to the invasion but also shows the transition from mountain fortress to city wall defense.