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Neural correlates Underlying successful memory In the hippocampus
성공기억에서의 해마의 특징적 뇌 기전

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dc.contributor.advisor정천기-
dc.contributor.author전소연-
dc.date.accessioned2020-10-13T03:57:41Z-
dc.date.available2020-10-13T03:57:41Z-
dc.date.issued2020-
dc.identifier.other000000162228-
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10371/170637-
dc.identifier.urihttp://dcollection.snu.ac.kr/common/orgView/000000162228ko_KR
dc.description학위논문 (박사) -- 서울대학교 대학원 : 자연과학대학 뇌인지과학과, 2020. 8. 정천기.-
dc.description.abstractOne of the most intriguing of the human brain's complex functions is the ability to store information provided by experience and to retrieve much of it at will. This capability of memory processing is critical to humans survival – that is, humans guide their actions based on a given stimulus (e.g., item) in an environment, and can do so even when the stimulus is no longer present owing to the memory of the stimulus.
A fundamental question of memory is why some experiences are remembered whereas others are forgotten. Since Scoville and Milners characterization of patient H.M., who demonstrated severe recognition memory deficits following damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL), the hippocampus has been extensively studied as one of the key neural substrates for memory. In line with this, several experiments have been conducted on exploring the roles of the hippocampus in various ways. One is confirming the causality of the hippocampus in the memory process using direct electrical stimulation to the hippocampal region. The other is investigating the neural correlates of hippocampus using intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) field potential and single neurons action potential known as spike recorded directly from the hippocampus.
The present thesis is focused on providing direct electrophysiological evidence of human hippocampus in episodic memory that may help fill the gap that remained in the field for several years. Here, I will show how direct hippocampal stimulation affect human behavior and present characterized neural correlates of successful memory in the hippocampus.
In the first study, building on the previous findings on the hippocampus, I sought to address whether the hippocampus would show functional causality with memory tasks and elicit different neural characteristics depending on memory tasks applied. I found hippocampal stimulation modulated memory performance in a task-dependent manner, improving associative memory performance, while impairing item memory performance. These results of the task-specific memory modulation suggest that the associative task elicited stronger theta oscillations than the single-item task.
In the second study, I tested whether successful memory formation relies on the hippocampal neuronal activity that engaged preceding an event. I found that hippocampal pre-stimulus spiking activity (elicited by a cue presented just before a word) predicted subsequent memory. Stimulus activity during encoding (during-stimulus) also showed a trend of predicting subsequent memory but was simply a continuation of pre-stimulus activity. These findings indicate that successful memory formation in human is predicted by a pre-stimulus activity and suggests that the preparatory mobilization of neural processes before encoding benefits episodic memory performance.
Throughout the study, the current finding suggests the possibility that the intervals of poor memory encoding can be identified even before the stimulus presented and may be rescued with targeted stimulation to the hippocampus even before the stimulus presented.
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dc.description.abstract인간의 복잡한 뇌 기능 중 흥미로운 하나는 경험에 의거하여 정보를 저장하고 의지에 따라 저장된 정보를 재인하는 기억 능력 이다. 인간은 주어진 자극에 기반하여 행동을 정하며 심지어 자극이 없는 상황에서도 자극에 대한 기억을 바탕으로 행동을 결정하기 때문에 기억 능력은 생존에 있어 매우 결정적이며, 이러한 기억과 관련된 가장 기본적인 질문은 기억의 저장 메커니즘, 즉, 어떤 기억은 저장이 되고 어떤 기억은 잊혀지는 가일 것이다. 스코빌과 밀너가 처음 보고한 기억상실증 환자 H.M.은 측두영역의 손상을 입은 후 심각한 인지 기억 능력의 장애를 보였고, 이후 사람 뇌의 해마 영역은 기억을 관장하는 뇌의 중요한 영역 중 하나로 널리 연구되었다.
해마가 기억에 미치는 영향과 역할에 대해서는 다양한 방법으로 실험이 진행되어 왔다. 그 중의 하나는 뇌에 직접적인 전기자극을 가해 기억 과정 중 해마의 역할을 확인하는 방법인데, 이는 뇌전증 환자의 모델을 통해 사람의 뇌에 접근이 가능해지면서 이루어져 왔다. 두 번째 방법은 전기생리학적 방법을 통하는 것인데 세포 외 활동 전위인 스파이크를 통해 성공기억에서의 뉴런의 활동성을 밝히는 것이다.
이 논문은 이 분야에서 오랫동안 논란이 되었고 부족했던 성공 기억에 관련된 해마의 역할과 기전을 물리적 자극 및 신경세포의 신호를 측정해서 전기생리학적 특성을 제시하는데 초점을 맞추고 있다. 논문에서 본 저자는 사람의 성공기억형성과 재인에 대해 뇌 자극과 단위세포활동을 보고할 것이다. 해마와 기억의 인과관계 및 기억 과정 중의 해마의 뇌 기전과 관련된 기존의 실험적, 행동적 발견들에 근거하여 본 저자는 (ㄱ) 해마에 직접적인 전기 자극을 주고 기억 수행능력의 차이 및 기억 과제에 따른 해마의 신경 기전을 밝히고, (ㄴ) 성공 기억이 형성되는 과정에서 나타나는 신경세포의 발화 패턴의 특성을 살펴보았다. 본 연구를 통해 저자는 향후 기억의 형성 과정에서, 자극이 제시되는 구간뿐 만 아니라 자극이 주어지기 전 단계에서도 해마를 타깃 하여 전기 자극을 줌으로써 기억 실패로 이어질 수 있는 자극을 성공 기억으로 저장할 수 있도록 유도할 수 있을 것이라 기대한다.
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dc.description.tableofcontentsSECTION 1. INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER 1: Human Memory System 1
1.1. The hippocampus and memory 2
1.2. The structure of the hippocampus 3
CHAPTER 2: Human Memory Research: how to see a memory 4
2.1 Clinical rationale for invasive recordings with intracranial electrodes 4
2.2. Human intracranial EEG 6
2.3. Single unit activity recording and spike sorting in human 7
2.4. Direct brain stimulation study 9
CHAPTER 3: Human Memory Research: hippocampal activity for understanding successful memory formation 11
3.1. Functional role of human intracranial oscillatory activity in successful memory mechanism 11
3.1.1. Theta Oscillations 11
3.1.2. Gamma oscillations 13
3.2. Brain stimulation for memory enhancement 14
3.3. Single unit activity study in memory 15
CHAPTER 4: Purpose of the Present Study 17

SECTION 2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY 19
CHAPTER 5: The importance of the hippocampal oscillatory activity for successful memory: direct brain stimulation study 19
5.1. Abstract 20
5.2. Introduction 22
5.3. Materials and Methods 25
5.3.1. Patients 25
5.3.2. Electrode localization 25
5.3.3. Memory task 29
5.3.4. Brain stimulation 30
5.3.5. Neuropsychological memory test 31
5.3.6. Analysis of memory performance and electrophysiological data 32
5.4. Results 37
5.4.1. Hippocampal stimulation improves associative memory but impairs item memory 37
5.4.2. Stimulation-induced memory enhancement is reflected in increased theta power during retrieval 38
5.4.3. Associative memory elicits higher theta power than item memory during encoding 42
5.4.4. Successful memory encoding elicits higher theta power in both memory task 44
5.4.5. Stimulation-mediated memory effect is greater in subject with poorer baseline cognitive function 46
5.5. Discussion 48
5.5.1. Summary 48
5.5.2. Task-dependent effects of hippocampal stimulation on memory 49
5.5.3. Theta activity as a neural signature for memory enhancement 51
5.5.4. Clinical implications 52
5.5.5. Limitations 54
5.5.6. Conclusion 55
CHAPTER 6: Hippocampal pre-stimulus activity predicts later memory success 57
6.1. Abstract 58
6.2. Introduction 59
6.3. Materials and Methods 62
6.3.1. Patients 62
6.3.2. Electrodes 63
6.3.3. Task and Stimuli 64
6.3.4. Electrophysiological recordings and Spike sorting 65
6.3.5. Analysis of iEEG field potentials 66
6.4. Results 68
6.4.1. Behavioral results 68
6.4.2. Spiking properties of hippocampal neurons 68
6.4.3. Hippocampal pre-stimulus activity correlates with successful memory 70
6.4.4. Hippocampal pre-stimulus spiking activity correlates with high gamma field potentials 74
6.5. Discussion 78
6.5.1. Summary 78
6.5.2. Comparison with previous findings 78
6.5.3. Possible mechanism underlying pre-stimulus activity 79
6.5.4. Conclusion 82

SECTION 3. GENERAL CONCLUSION 83
CHAPTER 7: General Conclusion and Perspective 83

Bibliography 84
Abstract in Korean (국문초록) 93
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dc.language.isoeng-
dc.publisher서울대학교 대학원-
dc.subjecthippocampus-
dc.subjectepisodic memory-
dc.subjectbrain stimulation-
dc.subjectmemory modulation-
dc.subjectiEEG-
dc.subjectsingle unit activity-
dc.subjectpre-stimulus signal-
dc.subject.ddc612.8233-
dc.titleNeural correlates Underlying successful memory In the hippocampus-
dc.title.alternative성공기억에서의 해마의 특징적 뇌 기전-
dc.typeThesis-
dc.typeDissertation-
dc.contributor.department자연과학대학 뇌인지과학과-
dc.description.degreeDoctor-
dc.date.awarded2020-08-
dc.identifier.uciI804:11032-000000162228-
dc.identifier.holdings000000000043▲000000000048▲000000162228▲-
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College of Natural Sciences (자연과학대학)Brain and Cognitive Sciences (뇌인지과학과)Theses (Ph.D. / Sc.D._뇌인지과학과)
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