S-Space College of Humanities (인문대학) Religious Studies (종교학과) 종교학연구(Journal of Religious Studies) 종교학연구(Journal of Religious Studies) 37집(2019)
강원도 인제지역 마을에서 모시는 산신(山神)의 성격
The Characteristics of Mountain god in the Village of Inje, Gangwon-do
- Issue Date
- 종교학연구, Vol.37, pp. 39-91
- 인제; 산신; 천왕; 서낭; 산신제; Inje; Guardian god of a mountain(山神); Mountain god(山靈); Mythical ancestor(天王); City god(城隍); Rituals for mountain god(山神祭)
- According to an analysis of the site of the village ritual in Inje, many villages hold village rituals centered on rituals for the mountain god(山神祭 ; Sansinje). In addition, there is a case where people hold rituals for the city god(城隍祭 ; Seonghwangje), calling it rituals for the mountain god, and they hold both of them together. Though it is called the "rituals for city god", there are also examples of praying for the elements that people actually pray to the guardian god of a mountain. This shows that the mountain god[the guardian god of a mountain] was the principal god enshrined in the village rituals in Inje.
The spirits enshrined along with the guardian god of a mountain(Sansin) in the village ritual in Inje area include city god(Seonghwang), god of governing several villages in the mountains(Guksa or Guksu), a spirit roaming the streets(Georisin), the great king(Daewang), a person who is good for the gods(Subu), and miscellaneous ghosts and
spirits(Japguejapsin), and so on. Among these deities, the ones that are enshrined as the main gods and in charge of the celebration are the mountain * The cultural property expert committee of Cultural Heritage Administration 강원도 인제지역 마을에서 모시는 산신(山神)의 성격 91 god and the city god.
Also, various examples show that the village rituals of Inje area which were centered on rituals for the mountain god shifts slightly to rituals for the city god. Such changes result in some differences made by geographical, social, and economic factors that a village faces.
On the basis of the characteristics of the guardian god of a mountain, we can classify five types of deities people enshrine, especially focusing on the ones in 45 villages in Inje area.: enshrining mountain gods as the main one, enshrining city gods as the lower spirits, enshrining mountain gods(Sanryeong) and city gods equally, enshrining village gods as upper-shrines or ground gods, etc.
Each type of mountain gods enshrined in the villages of Inje implies some or all of the three characteristics introduced earlier. However, there are many cases in which various forms of 'mountain god' are recognized as gods with a combination of the above three meanings rather than individual ones.