High temperature attenuates the gravitropism of inflorescence stems by inducing SHOOT GRAVITROPISM 5 alternative splicing in Arabidopsis
- Kim, Joo-Young; Ryu, Jae Yong; Baek, Kon; Park, Chung-Mo
- Issue Date
- New Phytologist, Vol.209 No.1, pp.265-279
- alternative splicing; Arabidopsis thaliana; high temperature; shoot gravitropism; SHOOT GRAVITROPISM 5 (SGR5); thermotolerance
- In higher plants, gravitropism proceeds through three sequential steps in the responding organs: perception of gravity signals, signal transduction and asymmetric cell elongation. Light and temperature also influence the gravitropic orientation of plant organs. A series of Arabidopsis shoot gravitropism (sgr) mutants has been shown to exhibit disturbed shoot gravitropism. SGR5 is functionally distinct from other SGR members in that it mediates the early events of gravitropic responses in inflorescence stems. Here, we demonstrated that SGR5 alternative splicing produces two protein variants (SGR5 alpha and SGR5 beta) in modulating the gravitropic response of inflorescence stems at high temperatures. SGR5 beta inhibits SGR5 alpha function by forming non-DNA-binding heterodimers. Transgenic plants overexpressing SGR5 beta (35S:SGR5 beta) exhibit reduced gravitropic growth of inflorescence stems, as observed in the SGR5-deficient sgr5-5 mutant. Interestingly, SGR5 alternative splicing is accelerated at high temperatures, resulting in the high-level accumulation of SGR5 beta transcripts. When plants were exposed to high temperatures, whereas gravitropic curvature was reduced in Col-0 inflorescence stems, it was uninfluenced in the inflorescence stems of 35S:SGR5 beta transgenic plants and sgr5-5 mutant. We propose that the thermoresponsive alternative splicing of SGR5 provides an adaptation strategy by which plants protect the shoots from hot air under high temperature stress in natural habitats.
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