INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION1 integrates cold signals into FLOWERING LOCUS C-mediated flowering pathways in Arabidopsis
- Lee, Jae-Hyung; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Park, Chung-Mo
- Issue Date
- Plant Journal, Vol.84 No.1, pp.29-40
- Plants constantly monitor changes in photoperiod and temperature throughout the year to synchronize flowering with optimal environmental conditions. In the temperate zones, both photoperiod and temperature fluctuate in a somewhat predictable manner through the seasons, although a transient shift to low temperature is also encountered during changing seasons, such as early spring. Although low temperatures are known to delay flowering by inducing the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUSC (FLC), it is not fully understood how temperature signals are coordinated with photoperiodic signals in the timing of seasonal flowering. Here, we show that the cold signaling activator INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1), FLC and the floral promoter SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) constitute an elaborate signaling network that integrates cold signals into flowering pathways. The cold-activated ICE1 directly induces the gene encoding FLC, which represses SOC1 expression, resulting in delayed flowering. In contrast, under floral promotive conditions, SOC1 inhibits the binding of ICE1 to the promoters of the FLC gene, inducing flowering with a reduction of freezing tolerance. These observations indicate that the ICE1-FLC-SOC1 signaling network contributes to the fine-tuning of flowering during changing seasons.
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