Multifunctional graphene oxide for bioimaging: emphasis on biological research
- Hwang, Do Won; Hong, Byung Hee; Lee, Dong Soo
- Issue Date
- European Journal of Nanomedicine, Vol.9 No.2, pp.47-57
- Graphene oxide (GO) nanomaterials offer a wide range of bioimaging applicability. Almost complete quenching ability of fluorescence by GO and natural interaction of GO with single stranded nucleic acid made GO a useful and intriguing multifunctional nanoplatform both as a biosensor for in vitro microplate diagnostics and as a drug delivery carrier for targeted delivery. GO's large surface area and strong near infrared absorbance contribute to enhancement of a therapeutic effect with abundant loading of drugs for possible photothermal and photodynamic therapy. Bioimaging capability of GO made it a good theranostic tool, while enabling tracing in vivo pharmacokinetics during concurrent treatment. Fluorescence, either signal on or off, Raman and surfaceenhanced Raman scattering (SERs), photoacoustic, and radionuclide imaging modalities can be used for theranostic purposes using GO nanomaterials. In this review, we highlight current applications of GO for bioimaging that are classified into in vitro microplate, in vitro cellular and in vivo bioimaging.
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