Multiscale Modulation of Nanocrystalline Cellulose Hydrogel via Nanocarbon Hybridization for 3D Neuronal Bilayer Formation
- Kim, Dongyoon; Park, Subeom; Jo, Insu; Kim, Seong-Min; Kang, Dong Hee; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Park, Jong Bo; Hong, Byung Hee; Yoon, Myung-Han
- Issue Date
- Small, Vol.13 No.26, p. 1700331
- 3D neuronal networks; graphene oxide; nanocrystalline cellulose; nongenetic bacterial control
- Bacterial biopolymers have drawn much attention owing to their unconventional three-dimensional structures and interesting functions, which are closely integrated with bacterial physiology. The nongenetic modulation of bacterial (Acetobacter xylinum) cellulose synthesis via nanocarbon hybridization, and its application to the emulation of layered neuronal tissue, is reported. The controlled dispersion of graphene oxide (GO) nanoflakes into bacterial cellulose (BC) culture media not only induces structural changes within a crystalline cellulose nanofibril, but also modulates their 3D collective association, leading to substantial reduction in Young's modulus (approximate to 50%) and clear definition of water-hydrogel interfaces. Furthermore, real-time investigation of 3D neuronal networks constructed in this GO-incorporated BC hydrogel with broken chiral nematic ordering revealed the vertical locomotion of growth cones, the accelerated neurite outgrowth (approximate to 100 mu m per day) with reduced backward travel length, and the efficient formation of synaptic connectivity with distinct axonal bifurcation abundancy at the approximate to 750 mu m outgrowth from a cell body. In comparison with the pristine BC, GO-BC supports the formation of well-defined neuronal bilayer networks with flattened interfacial profiles and vertical axonal outgrowth, apparently emulating the neuronal development in vivo. We envisioned that our findings may contribute to various applications of engineered BC hydrogel to fundamental neurobiology studies and neural engineering.
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