S-Space College of Veterinary Medicine (수의과대학) Dept. of Veterinary Medicine (수의학과) Journal Papers (저널논문_수의학과)
Cadmium affects genes involved in growth regulation during two-stage transformation of Balb/3T3 cells
- Fang, MZ; Mar, W; Cho, Myung-Haing
- Issue Date
- Toxicology, Vol.177 No.2-3, pp.253-265
- Cadmium (Cd), a carcinogenic metal in human and rodents, has been shown to transform cells in vitro. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms of Cd as a mutagen and/or promoter are not well clarified. We already reported that CdCl2 in a range of 1.5 similar to 360 ng/ml enhanced transformation of Balb/3T3 A31 cells induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG, 0.1 mug/ml) in a dose-dependent manner (Fang et al., Toxicol. In Vitro 15(3) (2001a) 51-7). In previous study, we observed that Cd stimulated cell proliferation on MNNG-initiated cells through inactivation of p53 and p27 and increase of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression after 24 h treatment (Fang et al., Toxicology 163 (2001b) 175-84). The aim of this study is to further elucidate the long-term effect of Cd in terms of cell cycle control gene expressions during the promotion stage of in vitro two-stage transformation. For the purpose, we determined the expression levels of the genes involved in growth regulation, such as p53, p27, c-myc, mdm2, cyclins D1 and B1, CDK4, and PCNA in the cells treated with Cd for 14 days after MNNG-initiation. In MNNG + CdCl2 group, cells apparently expressed cellular tumor antigen p53 mRNA, but did not express the wild-type p53 protein; the protein and mRNA levels of p27 were reduced apparently in the cells of MNNG + CdCl2 group compared to the cells of control and MNNG group. In addition, the protein levels of cyclin D1, CDK4, PCNA, c-myc, and mdm2, and cyclin B1 mRNA level were higher in MNNG+CdCl2 group than control and MNNG group. Together with previous data (Fang et al., Toxicology 163 (2001b) 175-84), our results indicated that during the transformation process of MNNG-treated cells, Cd may activate oncogenes such as c-myc, mdm2, and cellular tumor antigen p53, inhibit the tumor suppressor genes such as wild-type p53 and p27, and consequently accelerate the proliferation of initiated cells. This work firstly demonstrates that Cd affects the genes involved in growth regulation on initiated cells during the promotion stage of in, vitro cell transformation. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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