S-Space College of Pharmacy (약학대학) Dept. of Manufacturing Pharmacy (제약학과) Journal Papers (저널논문_제약학과)
Cadmium-induced alterations of connexin expression in the promotion stage of in vitro two-stage transformation
- Issue Date
- Elsevier BV
- Toxicology, Vol.161 No.1-2, pp.117-127
- During the multistage carcinogenesis. functions of several key genes involved in the cell cycle control and cell-cell communication carl be damaged. Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is known to transfer small, water-soluble molecules through intercellular channels composed of proteins called connexins (Cxs). Therefore, aberrant expression of Cx may be one of the critical factors for the clonal expansion of initiated cells during the two-stage transformation. We already improved the classical in vitro two-stage transformation method using N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) as an initiator and cadmium as a promoter on Balb/3T3 A31 cells, and reconfirmed the promotional effect of cadmium with this method (Fang, M.Z., Cho. M.H., Lee, H.W., 2001. Improvement of in vitro two-stage transformation assay and detection of the promotional effect of cadmium, Toxicol. In Vitro (in press). In this study, precise roles of Cd on Cx expression in normal Balb/3T3 A31 and during the promotion stage of the in vitro two-stage transformation were elucidated. For this purpose, the Cx43, Cx32 and Cx26 protein levels, Cx33 and Cs26 mRNA levels and the cellular distribution location of Cx43 protein were determined. Normal Balb/3T3 cells expressed Cx43 and Cx32, but not Cx26. After a short-term treatment of cadmium on normal cells. phosphorylation of Cx43 protein increased and Cx32 protein level decreased. However. during the promotion stage of the in vitro two-stage transformation, transformed cells treated with cadmium for long periods expressed Cx33 and Cx32 highly, similar to the level of normal Balb/3T3 cells, compared to the nontransformed cells. Moreover, Cx43 of the transformed cells was distributed mostly in the perinuclear region rather than the intercellular membrane. These data suggest that cadmium may inhibit the GJIC by increasing the phosphorylation of Cx33 and decreasing the expression of Cx32 in the normal Balb/3T3 A31 cells. Our results also suggest that these changes are not associated with the cell transformation transformed cells may reexpress Cx43 and Cx32 similar to the normal cells, though Cx43 protein is distributed aberrantly during the transformation process. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between transformation and posttranslational modification of the Cx proteins. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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