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The role of S100A4 for bone metastasis in prostate cancer cells

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Authors
Kim, Bongjun; Jung, Suhan; Kim, Haemin; Kwon, Jun-Oh; Song, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Min Kyung; Kim, Hyung Joon; Kim, Hong-Hee
Issue Date
2021-02-06
Publisher
BMC
Citation
BMC Cancer. 2021 Feb 06;21(1):137
Keywords
Prostate cancerBone metastasisS100A4Epithelial-mesenchymal transitionOsteoclast
Abstract
Background
Prostate cancers frequently metastasize to bone, where the best microenvironment for distant colonization is provided. Since osteotropic metastasis of prostate cancer is a critical determinant of patients survival, searches for preventive measures are ongoing in the field. Therefore, it is important to dissect the mechanisms of each step of bone metastasis, including the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cross-talk between metastatic niches and cancer cells.

Methods
In this study, we established a highly bone-metastatic subline of human prostate cancer cells by selecting bone-homing population of PC3 cells after cardiac injection of eight-week-old male BALB/c-nude mice. Then we assessed the proliferation, EMT characteristics, and migration properties of the subline (mtPC3) cells in comparison with the parental PC3 cells. To investigate the role of S100A4, we performed gene knock-down by lentiviral transduction, or treated cells with recombinant S100A4 protein or a S100A4-neutralizing antibody. The effect of cancer cells on osteoclastogenesis was evaluated after treatment of pre-osteoclasts with conditioned medium (CM) from cancer cells.

Results
The mtPC3 cells secreted a markedly high level of S100A4 protein and showed elevated cell proliferation and mesenchymal properties. The increased proliferation and EMT traits of mtPC3 cells was inhibited by S100A4 knock-down, but was not affected by exogenous S100A4. Furthermore, S100A4 released from mtPC3 cells stimulated osteoclast development via the cell surface receptor RAGE. Down-regulation or neutralization of S100A4 in the CM of mtPC3 cells attenuated cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis.

Conclusion
Altogether, our results suggest that intracellular S100A4 promotes cell proliferation and EMT characteristics in tumor cells, and that secreted S100A4 activates osteoclastogenesis, contributing to osteolytic bone metastasis. Thus, S100A4 upregulation in cancer cells highly metastatic to bone might be a key element in regulating bone metastasis.
ISSN
1471-2407
Language
English
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/173971
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-07850-4
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College of Dentistry/School of Dentistry (치과대학/치의학대학원)Dept. of Dentistry (치의학과)Journal Papers (저널논문_치의학과)
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