S-Space Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원) Dept. of International Studies (국제학과) Journal of International and Area Studies (JIAS) Journal of International and Area Studies vol.27 (2020)
Democracy Incongruence and Protest
- Jungmoo Woo; Jaechul Lee
- Issue Date
- Institute of International Affairs, Graduate School of International Studies, Seoul National University
- Journal of International and Area Studies, Vol.27 No.2, pp. 19-36
- The literature on protest argues that economic grievances against the government increase the likelihood of a protest. However, the literature offers little explanation for why some states with good economic performance, such as South Korea and China in the 1980s, experienced severe protests. This study suggests that even though a state has a high income level, if its political institutions do not satisfy citizens demands for democracy caused by economic development, citizens would have political grievances against their government. If citizens share such political grievances, their civil society would have the group-level perception of discrepancy between their demand for democracy and their governments institutional supply of political rights, called democracy incongruence. As the level of democracy incongruence in a state increases, the citizens are willing to participate in protest to express political grievances against the government. Empirical results support this argument.