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목재자원 이용의 생태효율성 연구: 기후변화 완화를 위한 탄소저장효과를 중심으로
The ecological efficiency of wood resources utilization: focusing on carbon storage effects for climate change mitigation in Korea

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Authors
장은경
Advisor
윤여창
Issue Date
2021-02
Publisher
서울대학교 대학원
Keywords
수확된 목제품기후변화탄소 저장온실가스효율성Harvested Wood ProductsClimate Change MitigationCarbon S torage EffectsGHG InventoryEcological EfficiencySustainable Consumption and Supply
Description
학위논문 (박사) -- 서울대학교 대학원 : 농업생명과학대학 농림생물자원학부, 2021. 2. 윤여창.
Abstract
As the 17th UN Climate Change Convention agreed on the carbon storage effect of domestic wood products, carbon value was added along with the economic value of wood resources in use. Timber resources are a representative provisioning service among ecosystem services of forests, and they were recognized as having a trade-off of reducing the provision of environmental services such as regulating, support and cultural services during harvesting of wood. However, as the climate regulating function of domestic wood resources emerged, the importance of understanding how to utilize domestic wood resources efficiently is being emphasized in the consumption sector.
This study aims to provide policy information for sustainable use and response to climate change through ecologically efficient use of wood resources. The flow of domestic timber input from the manufacturing stage to the industrial stage was analyzed from the point of view of cascading use and the efficiency of the sawmill was analyzed according to the source and species of roundwood. Based on these usage patterns, an alternative effort to further increase carbon storage was set as a scenario and the potential for carbon reduction was calculated to provide policy information in support of climate change mitigation. A policy direction to increase future carbon stocks was suggested through comparing the carbon accounting method between previous Tier 2 method and Tier 3 method which can reflect current efficient use of domestic wood.
Around 72% of the input from domestic roundwood was supplied to MDF and woodchip which are crushed for wooden products and only 14% of roundwood was supplied to sawn wood production. Sawn wood has the highest carbon potential with a long life of more than 50 years. However, in Korea, 58% of sawn wood is used for civil engineering and transportation; both are short-lived industries, manifesting the use of sawn wood with low carbon storage in Korea. For recycling, more than two-thirds of the raw material of particle board manufacturing was found to use recycled wood. On the other hand, MDF has low recycled wood material and uses domestic roundwood immediately crushed to produce MDF. About one-third of domestic timber was directly used as an energy source in Korea.
It was found that there are significant differences in the amount of carbon stocks estimated according to Tier 2 and Tier 3 methods. Using the Tier 2 method, it was found that after 30 years, the carbon stocks were more than twice that of the Tier 3 method. This is due to the fact that the half-life of 35 years for sawn wood and 25 years for wood-based panel is the international average usage pattern with long and medium-life of building materials and furniture materials compared to the usage pattern of domestic wood with short and medium life in Korea. For this reason, it was found that the results of the Tier 2 method overestimated carbon stocks. There is a large gap between the international average of half-life with the Tier 2 method and the disposal rate applied in the Tier 3 method that reflects the usage pattern of Korean domestic wood. Although currently Tier 2 method has been adapted to account carbon stocks of harvested wood products in Korea, there still remains a risk in terms of accuracy. The half-life of the international average of Tier 2 provided by IPCC, sawn wood is 35 years, while the half-life is 2.5 years considering the ratio of input to the industry according to the usage pattern in Korea. In the case of wood-based panel, the half-life of the Tier 2 method was 25 years, but it was found that the half-life for wood-based panel according to the usage pattern in Korea was 8.8 years.
The results of scenarios show that the carbon reduction potential in the early-term (2030) and mid-term (2050) was highest in the policy scenario of A.2.1, which promotes both quantitative and qualitative increases. Scenarios B4 and B4C, which improved qualitative use by increasing the usage time of domestic wood without increasing the amount of roundwood input, were found to have a carbon reduction potential close to that of the A.2.1 scenario. In the long-term half (2080), the B4C scenario was found to have a higher reduction potential than the A3 scenario, which showed the second highest carbon reduction in the early and mid-term. Scenarios with improved efficiency of domestic timber use (B4C) were ranked higher than those with quantitative increase(A3).
This study went beyond the existing Tier 2 level carbon accounting to account for carbon stocks at the Tier 3 level. The actual state of domestic wood use and the accounting method were evaluated in terms of carbon efficiency, and the carbon reduction potential was compared according to the wood use scenario. This study develops a knowledge system on how to measure the carbon value, a function of wood's climate control, and evaluates the use of wood in terms of the efficiencies that must be achieved for sustainable resource use. Furthermore, it provides policy information to establish a successful response to climate change.
본 연구는 탄소 저장 관점에서 현재의 국산 목재 자원의 이용 형태를 평가하고, 미래의 효율성을 증가를 위한 탄소 계정 방법 평가 및 시나리오 분석을 통해 국산 목재 자원의 지속가능한 이용과 기후변화 대응을 위한 정책 정보를 제공하는 것을 목적으로 한다.
본 연구에서는 국산 원목이 제조 단계에서 산업 단계까지 투입되는 흐름을 추적하고 제재목의 생산 효율성을 원목의 산지(국산/수입)와 수종(침엽수/활엽수)에 따른 차이를 분석하였다. 제재목의 생산 현황을 분석함으로써 순차적인 목재 이용을 위한 우리나라 산림 관리 부문의 역할을 고찰하였다. 이를 바탕으로 우리나라 목재 이용에 따른 수확된 목제품 탄소축적량을 계정하고 방법간 계정 결과 차이를 비교하였다.
본 연구의 결과로 첫째, 탄소 관점에서 우리나라의 국산 목재 이용은 탄소 저장 효율이 낮은 이용 형태를 갖고 있었다. 둘째, Tier 2와 Tier 3 수준에 따른 수확된 목제품 탄소 축적량 계정 결과에 큰 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 국제 수준인 Tier 2 방법으로 우리나라의 수확된 목제품에 저장된 탄소를 계정할 경우 Tier 3 수준과 비교하여 과대 추정되는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 목재이용 시나리오별 온실가스 감축 잠재량이 가장 높은 시나리오는 현행 정책 계획인 원목과 제재목의 생산 증가와 동시에 장수명으로 제재목을 이용하는 목재 이용 패턴을 가져갈 수 있도록 하여 양적인 증가뿐만 아니라 탄소 저장 효율을 높인 시나리오로 우리나라 온실가스 감축에 기여할 수 있는 잠재량이 큰 것으로 나타났다.
넷째, 우리나라 제재 생산의 효율성을 분석한 결과 국산 원목을 가공하는 제재소는 수입 원목을 가공하는 제재소에 비하여 생태적 효율성이 낮은 경향이 있었다. 이는 우리나라의 목재 이용 구조가 국산 제재목은 반감기가 짧은 토목용재로 이용되고 있는데 반하여 수입 원목을 가공한 제재목은 반감기가 긴 건축이나 가구로 이용되고 있기 때문이다. 활엽수 원목으로 생산한 제재목은 경제적 부가가치가 높으나 대부분 수입 활엽수 원목을 이용하여 생산되고 있는 것으로 나타났는데 이는 우리나라의 경제목이 주로 침엽수로 구성되어 있고 활엽수는 제재목으로 이용될 수 있기에는 경급이 낮은 수준에 머물러 있기 때문이다.
본 연구는 목재의 기후조절 기능인 탄소 가치를 측정하는 방법에 대한 지식체계를 학문적으로 발전시키고 지속가능한 자원 이용을 위해 달성해야 할 효율성 관점에서 목재 이용을 평가함으로써 우리 사회가 생태적 건전성을 담보하는 사회로 나아가고 기후변화 대응을 수립할 수 있는 정책 정보를 제공하는데 기여할 수 있다.
Language
kor
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/176445

https://dcollection.snu.ac.kr/common/orgView/000000165658
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College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (농업생명과학대학)Dept. of Agriculture, Forestry and Bioresources (농림생물자원학부)Theses (Ph.D. / Sc.D._농림생물자원학부)
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