Single bubble in-tube microextraction coupled with capillary electrophoresis
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- John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- © 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbHHeadspace (HS) extraction is a sample pretreatment technique for volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in a complex matrix. Recently, in-tube microextraction (ITME) coupled with CE using an acceptor plug placed in the capillary inlet was developed as a simple but powerful HS extraction method. Here, we present single bubble (SB) ITME using a bubble hanging to the capillary inlet immersed in a sample donor solution as a HS of submicroliter volume (∼200 nL). The analytes evaporated to the bubble were extracted into the acceptor phase through the capillary opening, then electrophoresis of the enriched extract was carried out. Since the bubble volume was much smaller than a conventional HS volume (∼1 mL), it was filled with the evaporated analytes rapidly and the analytes could be enriched much faster compared to conventional HS-ITME. Owing to the high surface-to-volume ratio of the SB, 5 min SB-ITME yielded the enrichment factor values similar to those of 10 min HS-ITME. When 5 min SB-ITME at room temperature was applied to a tap water sample, the enrichment factors of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), 2,3,6-TCP, and 2,6-dichlorophenol were 53, 41, and 60, respectively, and the LOQs obtained by monitoring the absorbance at 214 nm were 5.6–8.3 ppb, much lower than 200 ppb, the World Health Organization guideline for the maximum permissible concentration of 2,4,6-TCP in drinking water.
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