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Cystic dysplasia of the kidneys in extremely preterm infants following acute kidney injury

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Kim, Seh Hyun; Ahn, Yo Han; Shin, Jeongmin; Jung, Young Hwa; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Chang Won

Issue Date
Springer Verlag
Pediatric Nephrology, Vol.35 No.12, pp.2369-2372
Background Various perinatal morbidities may adversely affect postnatal nephrogenesis in preterm infants. Kidney ultrasonographic findings following acute kidney injury (AKI) have not been well described in preterm infants. Herein, we describe three cases of extremely preterm infants who showed abnormal kidney ultrasonographic findings resembling dysplasia of the kidneys following AKI. Case-diagnosis/treatment Their median gestational age and birth weight were 25(+6)(range 23(+3)-26(+6)) weeks and 620 (480-840) g, respectively. All infants suffered severe AKI during their third to seventh week of life. Their kidney function recovered with conventional management. Kidney ultrasonographies performed after AKI revealed increased kidney echogenicity, loss of corticomedullary differentiation, and multiple cortical cysts, which were similar to cystic dysplasia of the kidneys and were absent in previous kidney imaging. Three infants eventually developed at least one of the long-term kidney sequelae following AKI, including proteinuria, hypertension, and elevated levels of serum creatinine or cystatin C as determined during the last follow-up at the corrected age of 9-18 months. Conclusions Based on these cases, we can infer that AKI occurring during the early postnatal period may result in dysplasia of the kidneys with cortical cysts in extremely preterm infants, which may lead to chronic kidney disease in their later life. It is useful to follow up not only laboratory parameters but also kidney ultrasonographic findings in extremely preterm infants who suffered AKI during their early postnatal periods.
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