The Influence of Competence and Warmth Perceptions on the Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions Towards a Collegiate Sport Team : The Moderating Effects of Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultural Orientations
대학스포츠팀의 유능함과 따뜻함이 팀에 대한 태도 및 행동의도에 미치는 영향: 자아해석의 조절효과를 중심으로
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 대학원
- Individualism ; Collectivism ; Competence ; Warmth ; Intercollegiate Sports ; Identity Threat
- 학위논문(박사) -- 서울대학교대학원 : 사범대학 체육교육과,글로벌스포츠매니지먼트전공, 2021.8. 임충훈.
- Korean intercollegiate athletic programs are facing existential threats where 95 athletic teams from 72 universities have been terminated between the years 2012 and 2016 (Lim, 2016), and athlete recruitment has dropped nearly 20% from 2016 to 2021 (KUSF, 2021). Yet revitalization efforts often focus on improving the performance of teams involved in intercollegiate sport leagues, and often try to mimic the United States. Although the NCAA of the United States enjoys an unparalleled fan-base compared to other nations’ intercollegiate sport leagues, merely benchmarking their athletic programs may not be the most effective course of action.
Therefore, the current study focused on three aspects of the Korean intercollegiate sports market. First, the Korean intercollegiate sport teams do not have an established fan-base, where a typical university soccer team attracts less than 100 spectators (Park, 2018). The first step in attracting new fans is to instill positive impressions and elicit beneficial behaviors amongst non-fans. However, past studies have mainly recruited current spectators and fans of Korean intercollegiate sports and, thus, do not provide insights as to what aspects of the team are viewed favorably by the non-fan population. Therefore, the current study employed the Stereotype Content Model, which provides a useful framework for understanding the fundamental dimensions (i.e., competence and warmth) used to form an initial impression about a minimal exposure entity (Cuddy, Fiske, Glick, 2008).
Second, sports are often consumed and played differently across nations (Kelly, 2007). However, cross-cultural consumer psychology research about sport consumers has been scant (Han, Mahony, & Greenwell, 2016). Thus, the current study applied the individualism-collectivism cultural distinction, which is the most commonly used cultural variable, to compare how reactions to the same information about a university sport team differ according to cultural orientation.
Finally, collegiate sport teams operate within a superordinate identity (i.e., the university identity). Therefore, students of the university and the sport team share this superordinate identity. Furthermore, in a highly competitive higher education market such as Korea, students are constantly reminded of their universities (and as a result their own) position in the overall hierarchy. Past studies have repeatedly displayed that the status of a social identity often influences individual members’ reactions toward other individuals and groups that share the social identity (e.g., Tajfel & Turner, 1979; White, Argo, & Sengupta, 2012). Thus, the current study investigated how the status of the university influences the attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a collegiate sport team.
Upon this background, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the differing influence of competence and warmth perceptions about a collegiate sport team on the attitudes and behavioral intentions of non-fans, according to cultural orientation (i.e., individualism vs. collectivism). Specifically, study 1 investigated how competence and warmth information about a university sport team differentially influenced the attitudes and behavioral intentions of the university students (non-fans) within individualistic (United States) and collectivistic (Korea) countries. Study 2 further explored how the attitudes and behavioral intentions changed when the students’ superordinate university identity was threatened. Finally, study 3 investigated how team-related and fan community related competence and warmth perceptions influenced the attitudes and behavioral intentions of non-students, and how these influences differed according to cultural orientation.
Study 1 employed a 2 [US (Individualistic Culture) vs. Korea (Collectivistic Culture)] X 2 (Competent Team vs. Warm Team) between-subjects design (N=477). Results indicated that individualists (i.e., US students) had higher attitudes and behavioral intentions toward the sport team when it was portrayed as competent, while collectivists (i.e., Korean students) preferred the warm team. Study 2 utilized a 2 (Self-construal: Independent vs. Interdependent) X 2 (University Status: High Ranking vs. Low Ranking) X 2 (Competent Team vs. Warm Team) between-subjects design. Results of study 2 indicated that when the university was portrayed as having a low ranking, individualists displayed more collectivistic tendencies, while collectivists displayed more individualistic tendencies.
Finally, study 3 employed a survey design and data was analyzed using PLS-SEM techniques. Results indicated that team competence and team morality had significant positive influences across all outcome variables, while team sociability only influenced attitude toward the team. Meanwhile, fan community competence, sociability, and morality had differing influences on different outcome variables. As for the moderating effects of cultural orientation, individualism (i.e., independent self-construal) moderated the relationship between team competence and spectating intention. Collectivism (i.e., interdependent self-construal) moderated the relationship between fan community competence and positive word of mouth intention, fan community competence and spectating intention, as well as fan community sociability and spectating intention.
Theoretically, the current study suggests that cultural orientation significantly influences how individuals react to the same information (i.e., competence vs. warmth) and situations (i.e., superordinate identity status) concerning a collegiate sport team. Furthermore, the current study suggests conditions in which individualists may display more collectivistic tendencies while collectivists may display more individualistic tendencies. Practically, the current study provides important insights for university sport teams operating in various cultural contexts. Teams operating in a individualistic society may continue to promote a high standard of performance, while those operating in a collectivistic society may promote activities that benefit the community. Additionally, even those teams that operate within individualistic societies should consider the status of the university itself, and if the school does not excel academically, it may be more beneficial for the sport team to promote high warmth (i.e., sociability and morality).