Wearable and Implantable Soft Bioelectronics: Device Designs and Material Strategies
- Issue Date
- Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Vol.12, pp.359-391
- flexible electronics;stretchable electronics;soft materials;wearable devices;implantable devices;health monitoring;point-of-care therapy
- High-performance wearable and implantable devices capable of recording physiological signals and delivering appropriate therapeutics in real time are playing a pivotal role in revolutionizing personalized healthcare. However, the mechanical and biochemical mismatches between rigid, inorganic devices and soft, organic human tissues cause significant trouble, including skin irritation, tissue damage, compromised signal-to-noise ratios, and limited service time. As a result, profuse research efforts have been devoted to overcoming these issues by using flexible and stretchable device designs and soft materials. Here, we summarize recent representative research and technological advances for soft bioelectronics, including conformable and stretchable device designs, various types of soft electronic materials, and surface coating and treatment methods. We also highlight applications of these strategies to emerging soft wearable and implantable devices. We conclude with some current limitations and offer future prospects of this booming field.
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