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Low bone mineral density is associated with coronary arterial calcification progression and incident cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease

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Kim, Hyoungnae; Lee, Joongyub; Lee, Kyu-Beck; Kim, Yeong-Hoon; Hong, Namki; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Kang, Shin-Wook; Choi, Kyu Hun; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Yoo, Tae-Hyun

Issue Date
Oxford University Press
CKJ: Clinical Kidney Journal, Vol.15 No.1, pp.119-127
Background. Although it is well known that low bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in the general population, the prognostic role of bone mineral density (BMD) has not been established in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. Therefore we aimed to evaluate the association between BMD and the risk of CVD and cardiovascular mortality in patients with predialysis CKD. Methods. This prospective cohort study was conducted with 1957 patients with predialysis CKD Stages 1-5. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and coronary arterial calcification (CAC) scores were evaluated using coronary computed tomography. The primary outcome was a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE). Results. When patients were classified based on total hip BMD T-score tertiles stratified by sex, the lowest BMD tertile was significantly associated with an increased risk of MACE fhazard ratio 2.16 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-3.74]; P = 0.006g. This association was also shown with BMD at the femur neck but not with BMD at lumbar spine. In the subgroup of 977 patients with follow-up CACs at their fourth year, 97 (9.9%) showed accelerated CAC progression (>50/year), and BMD was inversely associated with accelerated CAC progression even after adjusting for the baseline CAC score [odds ratio 0.75 (95% CI 0.58-0.99); P = 0.039]. In addition, baseline CAC was associated with an increased risk of MACEs after adjusting for total hip T-score. Conclusions. Low BMD was significantly associated with CAC progression and MACEs in patients with predialysis CKD.
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