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Impacts of secondary aerosol formation and long range transport on severe haze during the winter of 2017 in the Seoul metropolitan area

Cited 9 time in Web of Science Cited 10 time in Scopus
Authors

Kim, Youngjin; Kim, Hwajin; Kang, Hyungu; de Foy, Benjamin; Zhang, Qi

Issue Date
2022-01
Publisher
Elsevier BV
Citation
Science of the Total Environment, Vol.804, p. 149984
Abstract
Severe haze episodes occur frequently in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) and throughout East Asian countries, especially during the winter and early spring. We investigated the sources and chemistry of particulate matter (PM) during three winter haze episodes in Seoul that occurred between January 1st and February 10th in 2017 using a high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. The average concentration of sub-micrometer aerosol (PM1 = NR-PM1 (+) black carbon (BC)) was 32.6 mu g/m(3), which was composed of 42% organics, 27% nitrate, 11% sulfate, 13% ammonium and 4% BC by mass. Six distinct sources of organic aerosol (OA) were identified: vehicle emitted hydrocarbon-like OA ( HOA), cooking OA (COA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), and 3 different types of secondary OA (SOA) with varying degrees of oxidation and temporal trends. The nitrate mass fraction increased during the three haze episodes, with nitrate accounting for 27-33% of PM1 mass. Enhanced nitrate concentrations and higher nitrate oxidation ratios (NOR), despite lower enhancement in relative humidity (RH) than the low PM loading period, suggest that regional transport of nitrate contributed to the nitrate mass during the haze periods. Lower HOA and COA concentrations during the high PM loading periods further confirm that local emissions or stagnant meteorological conditions were not the main reason for the severe haze. Residence time analysis (RTA), concentration field analysis (CFA), and column-CFA results from FLEXPART also showed that the measurement period was accompanied by atmospheric transport of nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium from eastern China. Nevertheless, we found that NO2, a precursor of nitrate, was predominantly from local emissions. These findings suggest that nitrate in Seoul is not only locally formed, but also transported from upwind areas. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier B.V.
ISSN
0048-9697
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/179529
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149984
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  • Graduate School of Public Health
  • Department of Environmental Health Sciences
Research Area Aerosol Health Effect, Atmospheric chemistry monitoring and modeling, Chemistry and life cycles of aerosol, 대기화학 모니터링 및 모델링, 대기환경 오염원 및 특성 규명

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