Facile and highly efficient three-phase single drop microextraction in-line coupled with capillary electrophoresis
- Issue Date
- Elsevier BV
- Journal of Chromatography A, Vol.1655, p. 462520
- A high-performance version of in-line, three-phase direct immersion-single drop microextraction (DISDME) coupled with capillary electrophoresis (CE) was demonstrated using a commercial CE instrument, and all the major and minor details were described to provide an easy-to-follow and user-friendly protocol. The excellent sample cleanup and enrichment power of this method was demonstrated with non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in human urine. The only preparation of urine samples was the addition of HCl to acidify the urine sample to pH 2. The acidic NSAIDs in the acidified urine sample were extracted into a basic acceptor drop covered with a thin organic layer attached to the inlet tip of a capillary immersed in the sample. A simple but powerful DI-SDME-CE method could be carried out automatically without any modification of the existing CE instrument. For improved performance, sample agitation and heating were employed by installing a microstirrer and a thermostating jacket in the sample tray. With 10 min of DI-SDME at 35 degrees C with stirring, NSAIDs such as ketoprofen, ibuprofen, and naproxen in urine were enriched 340-970-fold with intraday and interday RSDs of 0.8-2.4% and 1.1-3.6%, respectively. The LODs obtained with in-line coupled CE/UV were 10-50 nM (2-10 mu g/L). The performance of DI-SDME-CE/UV was also demonstrated by determining the naproxen level in human urine collected 24 h after taking a single oral dose of the drug. The spike recovery of naproxen from a single-point standard addition to the urine sample was 80%. Our high-performance three-phase DI-SDME-CE method is quite promising for the analysis of ionizable trace analytes in a complex sample matrix. (c) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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