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A pathogen-derived metabolite induces microglial activation via odorant receptors

Cited 10 time in Web of Science Cited 10 time in Scopus

Lee, NaHye; Jae, YoonGyu; Kim, Minhyung; Cho, TaeHo; Lee, ChaeEun; Hong, Yu Ri; Hyeon, Do Young; Ahn, Sanghyun; Kwon, Hongmok; Kim, Kyul; Jung, Jae Hoon; Chae, Sehyun; Shin, Jeong-Oh; Bok, Jinwoong; Byun, Youngjoo; Hwang, Daehee; Koo, JaeHyung

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Blackwell Publishing Inc.
FEBS Journal, Vol.287 No.17, pp.3841-3870
Microglia (MG), the principal neuroimmune sentinels in the brain, continuously sense changes in their environment and respond to invading pathogens, toxins, and cellular debris, thereby affecting neuroinflammation. Microbial pathogens produce small metabolites that influence neuroinflammation, but the molecular mechanisms that determine whether pathogen-derived small metabolites affect microglial activation of neuroinflammation remain to be elucidated. We hypothesized that odorant receptors (ORs), the largest subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors, are involved in microglial activation by pathogen-derived small metabolites. We found that MG express high levels of two mouse ORs, Olfr110 and Olfr111, which recognize a pathogenic metabolite, 2-pentylfuran, secreted by Streptococcus pneumoniae. These interactions activate MG to engage in chemotaxis, cytokine production, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species generation. These effects were mediated through the G(alpha s)-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase A-extracellular signal-regulated kinase and G(beta gamma)-phospholipase C-Ca2+ pathways. Taken together, our results reveal a novel interplay between the pathogen-derived metabolite and ORs, which has major implications for our understanding of microglial activation by pathogen recognition. Database Model data are available in the PMDB database under the accession number PM0082389.
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