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正祖代 國行儀禮로서 厲祭의 설행과 守令 糾察

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Authors
이태경
Issue Date
2021-06-30
Publisher
서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
Citation
한국문화, Vol.94 No., pp. 325-354
Keywords
정조국행의례군현의례여제수령King Jeong-jo(正祖)Yŏ-je(厲祭)National RitualLocal RitualLocal District Magistrate
Abstract
Yŏ-je, a national ritual to defeat the epidemic, was introduced in the process of
reorganizing national rituals according to Hongwu-lizhi(洪武禮制) in the early Joseon
Dynasty. Originally, ancient Chinese Yŏ-je had been a ritual for Yŏ(厲), the ruling class
who had died without descendants, but in both Ming and Joseon, people who died
unfortunately was included in the ‘Yŏ=Musaguishin(無祀鬼神)’ category. In this way,
Yŏ-je became a ritual symbolizing the king’s generosity(仁政) for the dead, especially
for the ruled class. Based on the Confucian perspective on the relationship between
politics and disaster, Yŏ-je, like the act of burying the dead, established itself as ye(禮)
to prevent future disasters by being generous with the dead.
Like his grandfather, King Jeong-jo respected the authority of Kukcho-oryeǔi(國朝五禮
儀) and sought to restore the national rituals that had been shrunken after the two wars
(兩亂), under the leadership of the powerful king. While the former kings focused on
large sacrificial rites(大祀), King Jeong-jo expanded his interest to small sacrificial rites
(小祀) such as Yŏ-je. King Jeong-jo thoroughly understood the origin and history of
Yŏ-je and adjusted the formality to fit the original intention of Yŏ-je.
In Chun-gwan-tong-go(春官通考), a national liturgical book compiled during King
Jeong-jo period, it was recorded that King Sukjong himself wrote a prayer and
dispatched high officials to perform special Yŏ-je(別厲祭) not only in the northern
suburb but also in the eastern, western and southern suburbs. It was also briefly
recorded about the sacrificial food of special Yŏ-je held in the three suburbs. The
increased number of places of Yŏ-je was worth being recorded to emphasize the
generosity of the king. The epitaph of King Jeong-jo read: “King Jeong-jo held Yŏ-je in
the four suburbs to do all he can do for his people.” From then on, until the end of
the Joseon Dynasty, Yŏ-je repeatedly appeared in epitaphs of the kings like clichés,
reproducing the symbol of kings’ generosity.
Yŏ-je was designed to be held not only in the capital city but also in the local
provinces. Yŏ-je held in the capital city and local provinces were almost the same in
terms of dates, places, orders, and sacrifices. But the official in charge of the ritual was
different. For the king’s generosity to be realized nationwide through Yŏ-je, each local
district magistrate had to perform Yŏ-je by himself. However, concerns continued that
local Yŏ-je was not being performed properly, because of private rituals led by
indigenous forces. From time to time, some negligent local district magistrates had local
functionaries and elders prepare and perform Yŏ-je instead.
King Jeong-jo emphasized the local district magistrates’ role in the practice of Local
Yŏ-je. He made superior governors supervise the performance of local Yŏ-je, and
punished local district magistrates in severe cases. In 1792, King Jeong-jo ordered the
altar and ritual utensils to be repaired nationwide. In Mokminsimseo(牧民心書), written
by Jeong Yak-Yong, one of Jeong-jo’s best friends, local district magistrates were given
not only the duty to perform local Yŏ-je, but also the responsibility to correct the bad
customs such as private rituals. In this year, one local district magistrate, Park Ji-Won
repaired the local altar and left a record to commemorate it. In 1799, another local
district magistrate Jeong Yak-Yong wrote a prayer for local Yŏ-je. From both cases, we
can find out that King Jeong-jo’s orders were being carried out at the local level.
ISSN
1226-8356
Language
Korean
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/180145
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Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원)Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.93-96(2021)
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