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총동원체제기(1938-45년) 조선총독부의 노무자주택정책 운영과 사택의 분배체계: 일본질소비료(주) 계열사를 중심으로

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한국문화, Vol.97 No., pp. 167-196
주거정책, 사회정책, 노동자주택, 통치성, 사택, 노동자, 조선식산은
행, 동양척식(주), 일본질소비료㈜,
housing policy, social policy, worker's house, governmentality, company
house, worker, Chosen Siksan Bank, Oriental Development Company,
Japan Nitrogenous Fertilizer Company
In Joseon, where the imbalance between housing supply and demand intensified during
the General Mobilization System period, there were measures to promote the housing
stability of workers that contributed to the expansion of productive capacity. In 1940,
the Japanese Government-General of Korea began supplying large amounts of
low-interest funds for the construction of workers houses. The target was an important
company closely related to the conduct of the war. The housing policies for workers,
however, could not fulfill their roles fully in the deformed structure of fund
management. The basic funds were forced a drastic retrenchment by the Exchequer,
which has the final decision on imperial fiscal investment and financing. The remaining
amounts were used to purchase the bonds of the Joseon Housing Corporation, which is
in charge of solving universal housing problems. As a result, the supply of worker
housing funds gradually became nominal. And the plans to build a company house
prepared by many corporations went down the drain. The affiliates of Japan Nitrogenous
Fertilizer Company, which received a majority of the funds or more among preferential
loans to very few companies, managed their company houses in a highly biased manner
toward certain social classes and ethnic groups. They built company houses about 50%
of the newly hired workers, and most of them were allotted to high-ranking managers
and supervisors instead of low-ranking productive manpower. Especially none of them
were assigned to Joseon workers. The housing instability of Joseon workers during the
General Mobilization System period was completely ignored by both the Japanese
Government-General of Korea and companies.
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