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두레 생성과 해체 원인

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dc.identifier.citation한국문화, Vol.97 No., pp. 337-417-
dc.description.abstractDoore means gathering in Korean. Membership to the Doore was voluntary. Therefore,
it was common for several members in one household and even people from different
towns to join. There was a strict hierarchy between a regular Doore member and an
officer. Jwasang, the highest position, was held by a person with excellent leadership
skills and outstanding knowledge in agriculture. On that account, it was standard for
members in their 30's or 40s to undertake the jwasang position, and the hierarchical
relation was loosely established among officers. However, the officers authority was
only recognized within the Doore community. In other words, they rarely influenced
other matters in the village because Doores status in the village was menial. The
lower-class people of the village mainly operated Doore.
Doore raised money through various methods. Even though the specific modality of
each Doore differed, interest income generally assumed a large portion of their entire
income, which denotes that one of the purposes of establishing Doore was to increase
property. Meanwhile, income from Doore agriculture or farm cooperative was minimal.
Doore farming can be categorized into three big categories:
1. As a village collaboration, at least one member from each household was to
participate, and absentees were to pay penalties. In principle, the village
administered the wages earned from the collaboration.
2. As a Doore collaboration, it was mandatory for all members to participate, and
absentees were to pay an installment. As a rule, the group managed the wages
earned from the collaboration.
3. As village Doore collaboration, participation was entirely voluntary, and wages were
equally distributed depending on the participated days.
Village and Doore collaborations were based on mandatory requirements, and they
were enforced for several days a year except for occasional yearly breaks.
A reason why the Doore formation was possible was due to the solidarity awareness
that we are united in one town. To a certain extent, villagers had a sense of solidarity
due to the government enforcement on village units' joint tax payment, which also led
to the formation of the Doore. It can be said that the coerced joint tax payment played
a more significant role in the arising of Doore than the villagers reciprocity. In other
words, Doores began to rapidly increase in the 19th century when the village units' joint
tax payment was activated. Foreigners who had a remarkable impact on the creation of
Doore significantly weakened during Japanese imperialism. As a matter of fact, village
units' joint tax payment was eliminated with the beginning of Japanese imperialism. Such
was followed by the weakening of higher class control over the lower class.
Consequently, a rift in the solidarity among villagers began to occur, and their mutual
trust was also damaged. As a result, resistance from the lower class eventually led to
the disbandment of Doore. However, despite the resistance from the lower class towards
the Doore, several Doores continued to exist until independence because Japanese
imperialism funded farm industries and a variety of establishment of unions and, by
extension, encouraged joint labor through the rural development movement. Nevertheless,
Doore rapidly disappeared after independence as foreign forces representing the rural
development movement disappeared.
dc.subject두레, 마을, 하민, 강제성, 공동납,
doore, village, lower-class people, mandatory requirements, joint tax payment
dc.title두레 생성과 해체 원인-
dc.typeSNU Journal-
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