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Synthesis of quaternary ammonium-functionalized silica gel through grafting of dimethyl dodecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride for nitrate removal in batch and column studies

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Kang, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Chan; Kim, Song-Bae

Issue Date
Elsevier Science
Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, Vol.102, pp.153-162
In this study, quaternary ammonium functionalized-silica gel was synthesized for nitrate removal using dimethyl dodecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] ammonium chloride (DMDAC) as a quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent, which was grafted to silica gel to obtain the DMDAC-silica gel. Batch experiments showed that the DMDAC-silica gel could effectively remove nitrate in the pH range of 4 to 10. Kinetic and equilibrium experiments showed that nitrate removal by the DMDAC-silica gel reached equilibrium in 60 min with a maximum nitrate removal capacity of 56.4 mg/g. Fixed-bed column experiments (bed depth = 10-30cm; inner diameter of column = 2.5 cm; flow rate = 0.06-0.18 L/h) in nitrate solution demonstrated the dynamic behaviors of nitrate removal by the DMDAC-silica gel under various experimental conditions of flow rate, bed depth, and influent nitrate concentration. The DMDAC-silica gels could be successfully used for nitrate removal and regenerated and reused with 10% NaCl solution in the column. In groundwater (nitrate =140 mg/L, chloride = 63 mg/L, sulfate = 440 mg/L, and bicarbonate = 20-300 mg/L), the nitrate BTCs appeared behind the sulfate BTCs with alpha(N)(S) values of 5.7-11.3, indicating that the DMDAC-silica gel could selectively remove nitrate over sulfate in dynamic flow conditions. (C) 2019 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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