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Differential and prognostic MRI features of gallbladder neuroendocrine tumors and adenocarcinomas

Cited 8 time in Web of Science Cited 12 time in Scopus

Bae, Jae Seok; Kim, Se Hyung; Yoo, Jeongin; Kim, Haeryoung; Han, Joon Koo

Issue Date
European Radiology, Vol.30 No.5, pp.2890-2901
Objectives To identify MRI features that are helpful for the differentiation of gallbladder neuroendocrine tumors (GB-NETs) from gallbladder adenocarcinomas (GB-ADCs) and to evaluate their prognostic values. Methods Between January 2008 and December 2018, we retrospectively enrolled patients who underwent MRI for GB malignancy. Two radiologists independently assessed the MRI findings and reached a consensus. Significant MRI features, which distinguish GB-NETs from GB-ADCs, were identified. Cox regression analyses were performed to find MRI features that were prognostic for overall survival. Results There were 63 patients with GB-NETs (n = 21) and GB-ADCs (n = 42). Compared with GB-ADCs, GB-NETs more frequently demonstrated the following MRI features: well-defined margins, intact overlying mucosa, and thick rim contrast enhancement and/or diffusion restriction (ps < 0.001). Liver metastases were more common and demonstrated thick rim contrast enhancement and diffusion restriction in GB-NETs (ps < 0.001). Lymph node (LN) metastasis showed thick rim diffusion restriction more often in GB-NETs than in GB-ADCs (p = 0.009). On quantitative analysis, the sizes of the GB mass and metastatic LNs in GB-NETs were larger than those in GB-ADCs (p = 0.002 and p = 0.010, respectively). The ratio of apparent diffusion coefficient values between the lesion and the spleen was lower in the GB mass, liver metastases, and LN metastases of GB-NETs than those of GB-ADCs (p < 0.001, p = 0.017, and p < 0.001, respectively). Survival analysis revealed that a large metastatic LN (hazard ratio 1.737; 95% confidence interval, 1.112-2.712) was the only poor prognostic factor (p = 0.015). Conclusion Several MRI features aided in differentiating between GB-NETs and GB-ADCs. A large metastatic LN was associated with poor survival.
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