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Association between diabetic foot ulcer and diabetic retinopathy

Cited 39 time in Web of Science Cited 40 time in Scopus
Authors

Hwang, Duck Jin; Lee, Kyoung Min; Park, Moon Seok; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Ji In; Cho, Joon Hee; Park, Kyu Hyung; Woo, Se Joon

Issue Date
2017-04
Publisher
Public Library of Science
Citation
PLoS ONE, Vol.12 No.4, p. e0175270
Abstract
Purpose We aimed to investigate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) and elucidate the association between DR and DFU severities and their shared risk factors. Methods A retrospective review was conducted on DFU patients who underwent ophthalmic and vascular examinations within 6 months; 100 type 2 diabetic patients with DFU were included. The medical records of 2496 type 2 diabetic patients without DFU served as control data. DR prevalence and severity were assessed in DFU patients. DFU patients were compared with the control group regarding each clinical variable. Additionally, DFU patients were divided into two groups according to DR severity and compared. Results Out of 100 DFU patients, 90 patients (90%) had DR and 55 (55%) had proliferative DR (PDR). There was no significant association between DR and DFU severities (R = 0.034, p = 0.734). A multivariable analysis comparing type 2 diabetic patients with and without DFUs showed that the presence of DR [OR, 226.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 58.07-880.49; p < 0.001] and proliferative DR [OR, 306.27; 95% CI, 64.35-1457.80; p < 0.001), higher HbA1c (%, OR, 1.97, 95% CI, 1.46-2.67; p < 0.001), higher serum creatinine (mg/dL, OR, 1.62, 95% CI, 1.06-2.50; p = 0.027), older age (years, OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.17; p < 0.001), higher pulse pressure (mmHg, OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.06; p = 0.025), lower cholesterol (mg/dL, OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97; p < 0.001), lower BMI (kg/m(2), OR, 0.87, 95% CI, 0.75-1.00; p = 0.044) and lower hematocrit (%, OR, 0.80, 95% CI, 0.74-0.87; p < 0.001) were associated with DFUs. In a subgroup analysis of DFU patients, the PDR group had a longer duration of diabetes mellitus, higher serum BUN, and higher serum creatinine than the non-PDR group. In the multivariable analysis, only higher serum creatinine was associated with PDR in DFU patients (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05-1.78; p = 0.021). Conclusions Diabetic retinopathy is prevalent in patients with DFU and about half of DFU patients had PDR. No significant association was found in terms of the severity of these two diabetic complications. To prevent blindness, patients with DFU, and especially those with high serum creatinine, should undergo retinal examinations for timely PDR diagnosis and management.
ISSN
1932-6203
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/191958
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0175270
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  • College of Medicine
  • Department of Medicine
Research Area Cerebral palsy, Medical image, Motion analysis, Pediatric orthopedic surgery, Statistics in orthopedic research

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