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Mixotrophy in the marine red-tide cryptophyte Teleaulax amphioxeia and ingestion and grazing impact of cryptophytes on natural populations of bacteria in Korean coastal waters

Cited 52 time in Web of Science Cited 54 time in Scopus

Du Yoo, Yeong; Seong, Kyeong Ah; Jeong, Hae Jin; Yih, Wonho; Rho, Jung-Rae; Nam, Seung Won; Kim, Hyung Seop

Issue Date
Elsevier BV
Harmful Algae, Vol.68, pp.105-117
Cryptophytes are ubiquitous and one of the major phototrophic components in marine plankton communities. They often cause red tides in the waters of many countries. Understanding the bloom dynamics of cryptophytes is, therefore, of great importance. A critical step in this understanding is unveiling their trophic modes. Prior to this study, several freshwater cryptophyte species and marine Cryptomonas sp. and Geminifera cryophila were revealed to be mixotrophic. The trophic mode of the common marine cryptophyte species, Teleaulax amphioxeia has not been investigated yet. Thus, to explore the mixotrophic ability of T. amphioxeia by assessing the types of prey species that this species is able to feed on, the protoplasms of T amphioxeia cells were carefully examined under an epifluorescence microscope and a transmission electron microscope after adding each of the diverse prey species. Furthermore, T. amphioxeia ingestion rates heterotrophic bacteria and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. were measured as a function of prey concentration. Moreover, the feeding of natural populations of cryptophytes on natural populations of heterotrophic bacteria was assessed in Masan Bay in April 2006. This study reported for the first time, to our knowledge, that T. amphioxeia is a mixotrophic species. Among the prey organisms offered, T. amphioxeia fed only on heterotrophic bacteria and Synechococcus sp. The ingestion rates of T. amphioxeia on heterotrophic bacteria or Synechococcus sp. rapidly increased with increasing prey concentrations up to 8.6 x 10(6) cells ml(-1), but slowly at higher prey concentrations. The maximum ingestion rates of T. amphioxeia on heterotrophic bacteria and Synechococcus sp. reached 0.7 and 0.3 cells predator(-1) h(-1), respectively. During the field experiments, the ingestion rates and grazing coefficients of cryptophytes on natural populations of heterotrophic bacteria were 0.3-8.3 cells predator(-1) h(-1) and 0.012-0.033 d(-1), respectively. Marine cryptophytes, including T. amphioxeia, are known to be favorite prey species for many mixotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates. Cryptophytes, therefore, likely play important roles in marine food webs and may exert a considerable potential grazing impact on the populations of marine bacteria. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • College of Natural Sciences
  • Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences
Research Area Aquatic Microbial Ecology, Biological Oceanography, Plankton


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