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Grazing impact of heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates on common red-tide euglenophyte Eutreptiella gymnastica in Masan Bay, Korea

Cited 33 time in Web of Science Cited 35 time in Scopus

Jeong, Hae Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Du Yoo, Yeong; Yoon, Eun Young; Kim, Jae Seong; Seong, Kyeong Ah; Kim, Kwang Young; Park, Jae Yeon

Issue Date
Elsevier BV
Harmful Algae, Vol.10 No.6, pp.576-588
The euglenophyte Eutreptiella gymnastica is a common red tide causative species. However, there have been no studies on the grazing impact of heterotrophic protists on this species. To investigate the grazing impact of heterotrophic protists on E. gymnastica, we measured daily the abundances of E. gymnastica and co-occurring potential heterotrophic protistan grazers in Masan Bay, Korea, in August 2004 when an E. gymnastica red tide occurred. In addition, we tested whether the common heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gyrodinium dominans, Oxyrrhis marina, Pfiesteria piscicida, Polykrikos kofoidii, Protoperidinium bipes, and Stoeckeria algicida and the naked ciliates Strobilidium sp. (30-40 mu m in cell length) and Strombidinopsis sp. (70-100 mu m in cell length) were able to feed on E. gymnastica. We also measured their growth and ingestion rates on E. gymnastica as a function of prey concentration. Finally, we calculated the grazing coefficients by combining field data on the abundance of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate and ciliate grazers and co-occurring E. gymnastica with laboratory data on ingestion rates obtained in this study. The maximum abundance of E. gymnastica in Masan Bay in August, 2004 was 7575 cells ml(-1), while those of Gyrodinium spp., P. kofoidii, P. bipes, the naked ciliates (<= 50 mu m in cell length), and naked ciliates (>50 mu m in cell length) were 50, 9, 58, 32, and 3 cells ml(-1), respectively. The maximum growth rate of G. dominans on E. gymnastica (1.13 d(-1)) was higher than that of O. marina (0.81 d(-1)) or P. bipes (0.77 d(-1)). However, E. gymnastica did not support positive growth of P. kofoidii, Strobilidium sp., and Strombidinopsis sp. (-0.04 similar to -2.8 d(-1)). The maximum ingestion rates of G. dominans, P. kofoidii, P. Pipes, O. marina, and Strobilidium sp. on E. gymnastica (2.1-2.7 ng C predator(-1) d(-1)) were similar, but they were much lower than that of Strombidinopsis sp. (156 ng C predator(-1) d(-1)). The calculated grazing coefficients for P. bipes, small heterotrophic Gyrodinium spp. (25-35 mu m in cell length), naked ciliates (<= 50 mu m in cell length). P. kofoidii, and naked ciliates (>50 mu m in cell length) on E. gymnastica were up to 0.77, 0.61, 0.22, 0.07 and 0.03 d(-1), respectively (i.e., up to 54%, 46%, 20%, 7%, and 3% of E. gymnastica populations were removed by the population of each of these heterotrophic protistan grazers in 1 d, respectively). The results of the present study suggest that P. bipes, small heterotrophic Gyrodinium spp., and naked ciliates (<= 50 mu m in cell length) sometimes have considerable potential grazing impact on the populations of E. gymnastica. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • College of Natural Sciences
  • Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences
Research Area Aquatic Microbial Ecology, Biological Oceanography, Plankton


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