Advection Fog over the Eastern Yellow Sea: WRF Simulation and Its Verification by Satellite and In Situ Observations

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Lee, Eunjeong; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Heo, Ki-Young; Cho, Yang-Ki

Issue Date
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Remote Sensing, Vol.13 No.8, p. 1480
An observed sea fog event over the Eastern Yellow Sea on 15-16 April 2012 was reproduced in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulation with high-resolution to investigate the roles of physical processes and synoptic-scale flows on advection fog with phase transition. First, it was verified by a satellite-based fog detection algorithm and in situ observation data. In the simulation, longwave (infrared) radiative cooling (LRC) with a downward turbulent sensible heat flux (SHF), due to the turbulence after sunset, triggered cloud formation over the surface when warm-moist air advection occurred. At night, warm air advection with continuous cooling due to longwave radiation and SHF near the surface modulated the change of the SHF from downward to upward, resulting in a drastic increase in the turbulent latent heat flux (LHF) that provided sufficient moisture at the lower atmosphere (self-moistening). This condition represents a transition from cold-sea fog to warm-sea fog. Enhanced turbulent mixing driven by a buoyancy force increased the depth of the sea fog and the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) height, even at nighttime. In addition, cold air advection with a prevailing northerly wind at the top of the MABL led to a drastic increase in turbulent mixing and the MABL height and rapid growth of the height of sea fog. After sunrise, shortwave radiative warming in the fog layers offsetting the LRC near the surface weakened thermal instability, which contributed to the reduction in the MABL height, even during the daytime. In addition, dry advection of the northerly wind induced dissipation of the fog via evaporation. An additional sensitivity test of sea surface salinity showed weaker and shallower sea fog than the control due to the decrease in both the LHF and local self-moistening. Detailed findings from the simulated fog event can help to provide better guidance for fog detection using remote sensing.
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College of Natural Sciences (자연과학대학)Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences (지구환경과학부)Journal Papers (저널논문_지구환경과학부)
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