Environmentally adaptive reshaping of plant photomorphogenesis by karrikin and strigolactone signaling
- Issue Date
- Blackwell Publishing Inc.
- Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
- Coordinated morphogenic adaptation of growing plants is critical for their survival and propagation under fluctuating environments. Plant morphogenic responses to light and warm temperatures, termed photomorphogenesis and thermomorphogenesis, respectively, have been extensively studied in recent decades. During photomorphogenesis, plants actively reshape their growth and developmental patterns to cope with changes in light regimes. Accordingly, photomorphogenesis is closely associated with diverse growth hormonal cues. Notably, accumulating evidence indicates that light-directed morphogenesis is profoundly affected by two recently identified phytochemicals, karrikins (KARs) and strigolactones (SLs). KARs and SLs are structurally related butenolides acting as signaling molecules during a variety of developmental steps, including seed germination. Their receptors and signaling mediators have been identified, and associated working mechanisms have been explored using gene-deficient mutants in various plant species. Of particular interest is that the KAR and SL signaling pathways play important roles in environmental responses, among which their linkages with photomorphogenesis are most comprehensively studied during seedling establishment. In this review, we focus on how the phytochemical and light signals converge on the optimization of morphogenic fitness. We also discuss molecular mechanisms underlying the signaling crosstalks with an aim of developing potential ways to improve crop productivity under climate changes.
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